Preface Acknowledgments Introduction: The Diversity of Feminist Thinking 1 Liberal Feminism Conceptual Roots of Liberal Feminist Thought and Action Eighteenth-Century Thought: Equal Education Nineteenth-Century Thought: Equal Liberty Nineteenth-Century Action: The Suffrage Twentieth-Century Action: Equal Rights Twentieth-Century Thought: Sameness Versus Difference Contemporary Directions in Liberal Feminism Critiques of Liberal Feminism Conclusion Questions for Discussion 2 Radical Feminism: Libertarian and Cultural Perspectives Libertarian and Cultural Views on the Sex/Gender System Some Libertarian Views on Gender Some Cultural Views on Gender Sexuality, Male Domination, and Female Subordination The Pornography Debate The Lesbianism Controversy Reproduction, Men, and Women Radical-Libertarian and Radical-Cultural Views on Mothering Critiques of Radical-Libertarian and Radical-Cultural Feminism: Beyond Polarization Conclusion Questions for Discussion 3 Marxist and Socialist Feminism: Classical and Contemporary Some Marxist Concepts and Theories Classical Marxist Feminism: General Reflections Contemporary Socialist Feminism: General Reflections Women's Labor Issues Critiques of Marxist and Socialist Feminism Conclusion Questions for Discussion 4 Psychoanalytic and Care-Focused Feminism Psychoanalytic Feminism: Focus on Freud Feminist Critiques and Appropriations of Freud Psychoanalytic Feminism: Focus on Lacan Bridges Between Psychoanalytic and Care-Focused Feminists The Roots of Care-Focused Feminism: Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings Maternal Ethics and the Ethics of Care Conclusion Questions for Discussion 5 Existentialist and Postmodern Feminism Sartre's Being and Nothingness: A Backdrop to The Second Sex Simone de Beauvoir's Existentialism for Women Critiques of Existentialist Feminism: A Communitarian Critique of Existentialist Feminism Postmodern Feminism Postmodernism/Postmodern Feminism: Keynotes Critiques of Postmodern Feminism Conclusion Questions for Discussion 6 Women of Color Feminisms From Multiculturalism to Intersectionality Women of Color Feminisms in the United States Women of Color Feminisms on the World Stage: Global, Postcolonial, and Transnational Feminisms Critiques of Women of Color Feminisms Conclusion Questions for Discussion 7 Ecofeminism Some Roots of Ecofeminism Ecofeminism: New Philosophy or Ancient Wisdom? Tensions in Nature: Ecofeminist Thought Spiritual Ecofeminism Transformative Ecofeminism Global Ecofeminism Vegetarian Ecofeminism Critiques of Ecofeminism Conclusion Questions for Discussion Conclusion Notes Bibliography Index
Rosemarie Tong is distinguished professor of healthcare ethics in the department of philosophy and director of the Center for Professional Applied Ethics at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte. Internationally recognized for her contributions to feminist thought and bioethics, Dr. Tong is past coordinator of the International Network on Feminist Approaches to Bioethics, recent past Chair of the Committee on the Status of Women for the American Philosophical Association, and executive board member of the Association for Practical and Professional Ethics.
Praise for the third edition: Winner of a Choice Outstanding Academic Titles(OAT) award for 2009 "No other work gives one such a sense of the scope and substance of the major traditions of feminist theory. This richly transformed new edition of Feminist Thought is an indispensable resource for those who want to understand the theoretical origins and complexities of contemporary feminist debates. Tong's comprehensive understanding of feminist theory enabled her to craft an indispensable overview that clearly illustrates the challenges as well as the promises of the range of approaches, perspectives, and frameworks that comprise feminist efforts to identify sources of oppression and transform women's status as the 'second sex.'" --Nancy Tuana, Penn State University "I have looked at the revised edition of Rosemarie Tong's Feminist Thought, and like it very much. My students loved the original for its clarity and comprehensiveness; they will appreciate the new, updated one still more. I recommend it highly!" --Laura Purdy, University of Toronto and Wells College "An illuminating, up-to-date discussion of the many varieties of feminism. Invaluable for scholars and students alike. Tong has surpassed herself." --James P. Sterba, University of Notre Dame Praise for the first edition: "Nicely balanced, eminently readable... As an overview of the immense variety and richness of activist, literary, and philosophical feminist thought, this is a very good book. It should find its niche in women's studies programs... It is a book that feminist sociologists should read." --Contemporary Sociology "Simply a splendid survey of all the major ways of theorizing about women in contemporary society. ...This is an ideal book for introducing students and nonstudents alike to the strengths and the richness of our feminist intellectual traditions." --Sandra Bartky, University of Illinois--Chicago "The best introduction to feminist theory is now even better! Rewritten with substantially new chapters on multicultural, global, and postcolonial feminism, care-focused feminist thought, psychoanalytic feminism, and contemporary socialist feminist theory, this new edition of Feminist Thought provides an updated account of the rich traditions of feminist thought and brings them more fully into dialogue on behalf of future possibilities. Current, crystal clear, comprehensive, and critical: It is indispensable for both beginning students and more advanced readers." --John J. Stuhr, Emory University "As in previous editions, Rosemarie Tong helps us understand better what we thought we knew, provides us with an easy entry into new perspectives we would like to know more about, and weaves it all together into a beautiful quilt she calls Feminist Thought. Just what is needed for teachers and students!" --James P. Sterba, co-author of Does Feminism Discriminate Against Men? Praise for the second edition: "...provide[s] meaningful examples of how feminist theory can contribute to reconciling the needs for diversity and difference with those for integration and unity, precisely identifying and recognizing those differences as important ones." --Gender, Technology, and Development "The third edition of Feminist Thought is an invaluable guide to all scholars and students of feminist theories. It provides a comprehensive overview of the richly diverse set of perspectives that guide feminist theory and action. Rosemarie Tong is generous, respectful, and even-handed in her clear and eloquent presentation of the strengths of each perspective, while providing fair but challenging criticism of its limitations. This edition improves on its excellent predecessors by being more comprehensive, more persuasive in its categorization of several theorists, and more helpful in understanding the relations among multicultural, global, and postcolonial feminist approaches. It is an essential resource for anyone seeking to engage with feminist theory." --Susan Sherwin, University Research Professor, Philosophy and Gender and Women's Studies, Dalhousie University "The first edition of Feminist Thought published in 1989 was at the time regarded as one of the most invaluable guides through a wide diversity of complex, feminist thought. This second, more comprehensive edition shares all the virtues of the first. Rosemarie Putman Tong has that rare gift of being able to critically grapple with, yet fully respect, the substance of widely differing feminist critical approaches. In turn the reader is guided to think critically, respectfully and sympathetically." --Women's Philosophy Review "Tong has done it again! This eagerly awaited new edition of Feminist Thought provides an up-to-date, critical introduction of the major traditions in feminist theory. New chapters on ecofeminism and multicultural and global feminism make this book an indispensable introduction to the diversity of feminist thought. Providing a clear and comprehensive examination of emerging perspectives in feminist theorizing, Feminist Thought is an essential resource for students and thinkers who want to understand the theoretical origins and complexities of contemporary feminist debates." --Nancy Tuana, University of Oregon