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Everything in Everything
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Anaxagoras of Clazomenae (Vth century BCE) is best known in the history of philosophy for his stance that there is a share of everything in everything. He puts forward this theory of extreme mixture as a solution to the problem of change he and his contemporaries inherited from Parmenides - that what is cannot come from what is not (and vice versa). Yet, for ancient and modern scholars alike, the metaphysical significance of Anaxagoras's position has proven challenging to understanding. In Everything in Everything, Anna Marmodoro offers a fresh interpretation of Anaxagoras's theory of mixture, arguing for its soundness and also relevance to contemporary debates in metaphysics. For Anaxagoras the fundamental elements of reality are the opposites (hot, cold, wet, dry, etc.), which Marmodoro argues are instances of physical causal powers. The unchanging opposites compose mereologically, forming (phenomenologically) emergent wholes. Everything in the universe (except nous) derives from the opposites. The opposite exist as endlessly partitioned; they can be scattered everywhere and be in everything. Mardomoro further shows that their extreme mixture is made possible by the omni-presence and hence com-presence in the universe, which is in turn facilitated by the limitless divisibility of the opposites. Anaxagoras tackles the logical consequences of the limitless divisibility of the elements. He is the first ante litteram 'gunk lover' in the history of metaphysics. He also has a unique conception of (non-material) gunk and a unique power ontology, which Marmodoro refers to as 'power gunk'. Marmodoro investigates the nature of power gunk and the explanatory utility of the concept for Anaxagoras, for his theory of extreme mixture. Whilst most defenders of an atomless universe nowadays argue for material gunk as a conceptual possibility (only), Anaxagoras argues for power gunk as the ontology of nature.
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About the Author

Anna Marmodoro is an Official Fellow in Philosophy at Corpus Christi College, University of Oxford. She specializes in ancient philosophy and contemporary metaphysics. She has published books and journal articles in both areas; and currently directs two major research projects: one on ancient and contemporary metaphysics of powers funded by the European Research Council, and one on the metaphysics of quantum entanglement, funded by the Templeton World Charity Foundation.

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Marmodoro displays deep understanding of the secondary literature and she offers reasoned, even-handed, and efficient objections to competing interpretations. Through her investigation, Marmodoro invites the reader to take a fresh look: to reexamine and revalue Anaxagoras' physical theory. The volume is a must read for specialists, a should read for students, and a deeply profitable read for anyone who is keen to learn about imaginative, creative, and complex approaches to ontology and cosmology. * John Sisko, Bryn Mawr Classical Review *

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