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Evaluating Research in Communicative Disorders


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<>Preface 1 Research and Practice in Communicative DisordersKnowledge AcquisitionThe Scientific Method Scientific Theory The Conduct of Scientific Research Statement of the Problem Method of Investigation Results of Investigation Conclusions The Nature of Research in Communicative Disorders Evidence-Based Practice Research-Practice Relationships Research-Driven Relationships Practice-Driven Relationships Shared-Interest RelationshipsThe Editorial Process in the Publication of a Research ArticleThe Challenge of Cyberspace Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Information Sources The Knowledge-Base of the ReaderKey TermsStudy QuestionsReferences 2 The Introduction Section of the Research ArticleThe Nature of Technical WritingComponents of the Introduction General Statement of the Problem The Rationale for the Study Arguments Fallacies Review of the LiteratureResearch Questions and HypothesesLimitations of the StudyExample: Introduction to a Research StudyKey TermsStudy QuestionsReferences Evaluation Checklist: Introduction Section 3 Research Strategies in Communicative DisordersQuantitative Research Variables in Empirical Research Independent and Dependent Variables Active and Attribute Variables Continuous and Categorical Variables Experimental Research Bivalent Experiments Multivalent Experiments Parametric Experiments Descriptive Research Comparative Research Developmental Research Correlational Research Survey Research Retrospective Research Combined Experimental and Descriptive Research The Title of a Quantitative Research ArticleQualitative Research Types of Qualitative Research Observational Research Interview Research Narrative Research Case Study Research The Title of a Qualitative Research ArticleMixed-Methods ResearchKey TermsStudy QuestionsReferencesEvaluation Checklist: The Title 4 Research Design in Communicative DisordersQuantitative Research Design Group Research Designs Between-Subjects Designs Within-Subjects Designs Mixed Designs Single-Subject Research Designs Withdrawal and Reversal Designs Multiple-Baseline Designs Changing-Criterion DesignsQualitative and Mixed-Methods Research DesignValidity Issues in Research Design Internal Validity Control of Variability Credibility External Validity Generalizability TransferabilityPilot ResearchKey TermsStudy QuestionsReferences 5 The Method Section of the Research ArticleComponents of the Method Section Subjects (Participants) Models and Specimens Sample Size Selection Criteria Protection of Subjects and Participants Materials Data Acquisition Levels of Measurement Reliability of Measurements Validity of Measurements Instrumentation Behavioral Instruments Procedure Tasks and Protocol Appropriateness of Measurement Data AnalysisKey TermsStudy QuestionsReferencesEvaluation Checklist: Method Section 6 The Results Section of the Research ArticleOrganization of Quantitative Results Data Distributions Tabular and Graphic Presentations Descriptive Statistics Measures of Central Tendency Measures of Variability Measures of Skewness Measures of Kurtosis Some Characteristics of Clear Data OrganizationData Analysis The Normal Curve Model Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics Bivariate Descriptive Statistics Describing Relationships Statistical Significance Testing a Null Hypothesis Correlational Analysis Analyzing Relationships Inferential Statistics Analyzing Differences Effect Size and the Power of Statistical Tests Some Characteristics of Clear Data AnalysisData Display Some Characteristics of Clear Data DisplayKey TermsStudy QuestionsReferencesEvaluation Checklist: Results Section 7 The Discussion and Conclusions Section of the Research ArticleOrganization of the Discussion and Conclusions Section Relationship of Conclusions to Preceding Parts of the Article The Research Problem The Method of Investigation The Results of the Investigation Relationship of Results to Previous Research Limitations of the Research Study Implications of the Research Study Theoretical Implications Practical Implications Implications for Future ResearchThe Abstract of the Research ArticleKey TermsStudy QuestionsReferencesEvaluation Checklist: Discussion and Conclusions 8 Evaluating Treatment Efficacy ResearchEvidence-Based Practice Generalizability of Research Findings Randomization Sample Size Systematic Replication Levels of Evidence Framing the QuestionExperimental Designs for Studying Treatment Efficacy Pre-Experimental Designs One-Shot Case Study Design One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design Static-Group Comparison Design Quasi-Experimental Designs Nonequivalent Control-Group Design Time-Series Designs True Experimental Designs Randomized Pretest-Posttest Control-Group Designs Solomon Randomized Four-Group Design Ethics of Using Control Groups in Treatment Efficacy ResearchSystematic Reviews Meta-Analysis of Treatment Efficacy Research Evidence-Based Clinical Practice GuidelinesKey TermsStudy QuestionsReferences Appendix A: Complete Evaluation ChecklistAppendix B: A Compendium of Journals in Communicative Sciences and DisordersAppendix C: Proclamation of the Association of American Medical Colleges and the National Health Council Subject Index

About the Author

Robert F. Orlikoff, PhD, is Professor and Chair of the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at West Virginia University. He has extensive experience as a researcher, clinician, and educator and has served as an associate editor and reviewer for several journals in communicative sciences and disorders.


"I intend to continue with this book for the time being. I think the writing style and examples are perfect for students just learning how to critically evaluate research." -- Elaine Shuey, East Stroudsburg University "I have been using this text (from the first through fifth edition) ever since I started teaching this course in 1984. I believe it is a solid text - I continue to use portions of it in my lectures and power point presentations." -- James Mahshie, Gallaudet University

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