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Table of Contents

Ethics Self -Orientation ix Introduction 1 Summary of Philosophical Problems about Ethics 6 1 Relative Ethics or Universal Ethics? 8 1.1 Relative Ethics 9 1.2 Universal Ethics 10 1.3 Cultural Relativism or Ethical Relativism? 11 1.4 Cultural Relativism and Universal Ethics 12 1.5 Ethics and Human Nature 13 1.6 Ethics and Human Rationality 14 1.7 Relative Ethics or Universal Ethics? 15 1.8 Conclusion 17 Concepts, Theories, and Traditions Introduced in Chapter 1 18 For Further Reading 19 Online Resources 19 Review Questions 20 Discussion Questions 20 2 Virtue Ethics 22 2.1 What Are Virtues? 24 2.2 Aristotle, Happiness, and the Virtues 27 2.3 A Developmental Model 28 2.4 Universalism and Relativism Again 31 2.5 Virtue Ethics: A Guide to Good Behavior 33 2.6 Pros and Cons of Virtue Ethics 35 2.7 Conclusion 37 Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions Introduced in Chapter 2 38 For Further Reading 39 Online Resources 40 Review Questions 40 Discussion Questions 40 3 Natural Law Ethics 42 3.1 What Is Natural Law and Where Does It Come From? 43 3.2 The Natural Law and Universal Ethics 46 3.3 Natural Law Ethics and Human Nature 46 3.4 Natural Law Ethics and Virtue Ethics 51 3.5 When Following the Natural Law Is Unclear: Use the Pauline Principle 52 3.6 When Following the Natural Law Is Unclear: Use the Principle of Double Effect 53 3.7 Conclusion 56 Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions Introduced in Chapter 3 58 For Further Reading 59 Online Resources 60 Review Questions 60 Discussion Questions 60 4 Social Contract Ethics 62 4.1 Continuities and Discontinuities with Natural Law Ethics 63 4.2 The Principle of Self ]Interest (Ethical Egoism) 65 4.3 The State of Nature 66 4.4 A Contract Involves Cooperation 68 4.5 A Contract Involves Rationality 70 4.6 Common ]sense Morality (Properly Understood) 72 4.7 Social Contract Ethics Applied 74 4.8 Conclusion 77 Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions Introduced in Chapter 4 79 For Further Reading 80 Online Resources 80 Review Questions 81 Discussion Questions 81 5 Utilitarian Ethics 82 5.1 Ethics Is Based on Feelings 83 5.2 Is Ought: Shorthand for Hume's Theory of Moral Sentiments 86 5.3 Feelings, Utility, and Consequences 88 5.4 Utility and Happiness 91 5.5 Utilitarianism: Relativist or Universalist? 92 5.6 Utility and Equality 93 5.7 Utilitarian Applications 95 5.8 Conclusion 98 Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions Introduced in Chapter 5 99 For Further Reading 100 Online Resources 101 Review Questions 101 Discussion Questions 102 6 Deontological Ethics 103 6.1 Duty-centered Ethics 105 6.2 Ethics of Freedom and Rationality 106 6.3 The Main Deontological Principle: The Categorical Imperative 107 6.4 One Form of the Categorical Imperative: The Principle of Autonomy 110 6.5 Another Form of the Categorical Imperative: The Principle of Universality 112 6.6 Duties Correlate with Rights (Usually) 114 6.7 Deontology: Relativist or Universalist? 117 6.8 Deontological Applications 117 6.9 Conclusion 121 Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions Introduced in Chapter 6 123 For Further Reading 124 Online Resources 125 Review Questions 125 Discussion Questions 125 7 Care Ethics 127 7.1 Ethics Is Based on Feelings 129 7.2 Humans Are Relational Beings 130 7.3 Ethics of Principles 133 7.4 Virtue Ethics and Partiality 135 7.5 Feminine Ethics 136 7.6 Care Ethics: Relativist or Universalist? 138 7.7 Care Ethics Applications 140 7.8 Conclusion 142 Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions Introduced in Chapter 7 143 For Further Reading 144 Online Resources 145 Review Questions 145 Discussion Questions 146 8 Conclusion: Using the Tools of Ethics 148 8.1 Living Ethical Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions 150 8.2 Ethical Issues, Both Private and Public 151 8.3 Useful Ethical Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions 151 8.4 Ethical Tools Are Not Mechanical Tools 154 8.5 How to Use Ethical Tools 155 8.6 Pitfalls and Practice 163 8.7 Wrap Up 165 For Further Reading 166 Review Questions 167 Discussion Questions 167 Appendix 1: Ethical Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions 169 Appendix 2: Ethical Principles 177 Appendix 3: Notes on Sources 179 Appendix 4: Metaethics 184 Appendix 5: References 196 Index 203

About the Author

John Mizzoni holds a PhD from Temple University, and is an Associate Professor of Philosophy at Neumann college in Pennsylvania where he teaches a wide range of philosophy courses. A specialist in moral and environmental philosophy, he has over twenty publications in journals such The Journal of Philosophical Research, The International Journal of Applied Philosophy, Environmental Ethics, Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, The Philosopher's Magazine, Bridges: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Theology, Philosophy, History, and Science, The International Journal of the Humanities, Teaching Ethics and Environmental Philosophy. He is also a semi-professional musician.

Reviews

"A concise and readable introduction to the major normative ethical theories" - Lily Frank, Neuroethics.

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