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Ethical Theory


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Preface xi Source Acknowledgments xiii Part I The Status of Morality 1 Introduction to Part I 3 1. ?Of the Influencing Motives of the Will? and ?Moral Distinctions Not Derived from Reason? 7 David Hume 2. A Critique of Ethics 16 A. J. Ayer 3. The Subjectivity of Values 22 J. L. Mackie 4. Ethics and Observation 31 Gilbert Harman 5. Moral Relativism Defended 35 Gilbert Harman 6. Cultural Relativism 44 Harry Gensler 7. The Subject-Matter of Ethics 48 G. E. Moore 8. Ethics as Philosophy: A Defense of Ethical Nonnaturalism 54 Russ Shafer-Landau 9. Realism 63 Michael Smith Part II Moral Knowledge 69 Introduction to Part II 71 10. Thinking About Cases 74 Shelly Kagan 11. But I Could be Wrong 85 George Sher 12. Proof 94 Renford Bambrough 13. Moral Knowledge and Ethical Pluralism 101 Robert Audi 14. Coherentism and the Justification of Moral Beliefs 112 Geoffrey Sayre-McCord Part III Why Be Moral? 127 Introduction to Part III 129 15. The Immoralist?s Challenge 132 Plato 16. Morality as a System of Hypothetical Imperatives 138 Philippa Foot 17. A Puzzle About the Rational Authority of Morality 144 David O. Brink 18. Moral Rationalism 159 Russ Shafer-Landau 19. Psychological Egoism 167 Joel Feinberg 20. Flourishing Egoism 178 Lester Hunt 21. Ethical Egoism 193 James Rachels 22. Moral Saints 200 Susan Wolf Part IV Ethics and Religion 213 Introduction to Part IV 215 23. Euthyphro 218 Plato 24. A New Divine Command Theory 220 Robert Merrihew Adams 25. God and Objective Morality: A Debate 225 William Lane Craig and Walter Sinnott-Armstrong 26. God and Immortality as Postulates of Pure Practical Reason 230 Immanuel Kant 27. God and the Moral Order 234 C. Stephen Layman 28. God and Morality 242 Erik Wielenberg Part V Value 253 Introduction to Part V 255 29. Hedonism 258 John Stuart Mill 30. The Experience Machine 264 Robert Nozick 31. The Good Life: A Defense of Attitudinal Hedonism 266 Fred Feldman 32. Rationality and Full Information 277 Thomas Carson 33. Desire and the Human Good 286 Richard Kraut 34. What Makes Someone?s Life Go Best 294 Derek Parfit 35. What Things are Good? 299 W. D. Ross Part VI Moral Responsibility 303 Introduction to Part VI 305 36. Determinism and the Theory of Agency 308 Richard Taylor 37. The Impossibility of Moral Responsibility 312 Galen Strawson 38. Freedom and Necessity 317 A. J. Ayer 39. Moral Luck 322 Thomas Nagel 40. Sanity and the Metaphysics of Responsibility 330 Susan Wolf 41. Freedom and Resentment 340 Peter Strawson Part VII Moral Standing 353 Introduction to Part VII 355 42. We Have No Duties to Animals 359 Immanuel Kant 43. All Animals are Equal 361 Peter Singer 44. The Rights of Animals and Unborn Generations 372 Joel Feinberg 45. On Being Morally Considerable 381 Kenneth Goodpaster 46. Abortion and Infanticide 390 Michael Tooley 47. An Argument that Abortion is Wrong 400 Don Marquis Part VIII Consequentialism 411 Introduction to Part VIII 413 48. Utilitarianism 417 John Stuart Mill 49. Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism 423 J. J. C. Smart 50. Rule-Consequentialism 428 Brad Hooker 51. Alienation, Consequentialism, and the Demands of Morality 441 Peter Railton 52. What is Wrong with Slavery 458 R. M. Hare 53. Famine, Affluence and Morality 466 Peter Singer 54. The Survival Lottery 474 John Harris Part IX Deontology 479 Introduction to Part IX 481 55. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals 485 Immanuel Kant 56. Kant?s Formula of Universal Law 499 Christine Korsgaard 57. Kantian Approaches to Some Famine Problems 510 Onora O?Neill 58. The Rationality of Side Constraints 521 Robert Nozick 59. The Golden Rule Rationalized 524 Alan Gewirth 60. The Problem of Abortion and the Doctrine of the Double Effect 536 Philippa Foot 61. Killing, Letting Die, and the Trolley Problem 543 Judith Jarvis Thomson Part X Contractarianism 553 Introduction to Part X 555 62. Leviathan 558 Thomas Hobbes 63. Why Contractarianism? 571 David Gauthier 64. A Theory of Justice 581 John Rawls 65. Contractualism and Utilitarianism 593 T. M. Scanlon Part XI Virtue Ethics 609 Introduction to Part XI 611 66. The Nature of Virtue 615 Aristotle 67. Non-Relative Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach 630 Martha Nussbaum 68. Normative Virtue Ethics 645 Rosalind Hursthouse 69. Agent-Based Virtue Ethics 653 Michael Slote 70. A Virtue Ethical Account of Right Action 664 Christine Swanton 71. Being Virtuous and Doing the Right Thing 676 Julia Annas Part XII Feminist Ethics 687 Introduction to Part XII 689 72. In a Different Voice 692 Carol Gilligan 73. An Ethic of Caring 699 Nell Noddings 74. Justice, Care, and Gender Bias 713 Cheshire Calhoun 75. The Need for More than Justice 721 Annette Baier 76. Sexism 729 Marilyn Frye 77. Feminist Skepticism, Authority, and Transparency 735 Margaret Urban Walker Part XIII Prima Facie Duties and Particularism 751 Introduction to Part XIII 753 78. What Makes Right Acts Right? 756 W. D. Ross 79. An Unconnected Heap of Duties? 763 David McNaughton 80. An Unprincipled Morality 772 Jonathan Dancy 81. On Knowing the ?Why?: Particularism and Moral Theory 776 Margaret Olivia Little 82. Unprincipled Ethics 785 Gerald Dworkin

About the Author

Russ Shafer-Landau is Department Chair and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His previous publications include The Foundations of Ethics: An Anthology (2006, with Terence Cuneo) and Moral Realism: A Defense (2003). He also the editor of Oxford Studies in Metaethics.


This is a rich, wide-ranging, and nicely accessible collection of many of moral philosophy?s greatest hits, updated to include an excellent new section in feminist ethics. A must-have for anyone interested in ethics. Hilde Lindemann, Michigan State University Praise for the First Edition: This collection is a very welcome addition. It is remarkable for the breadth of issues discussed and the diversity of positions represented. Throughout, the selections have been chosen with a keen eye for excellence and accessibility. Taken together, they provide a vivid panorama of ethical theory today. Peter Railton, University of Michigan It is a wonderfully comprehensive collection that manages to bring together well-chosen papers on a number of significant areas in moral theory. Geoff Sayre-McCord, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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