1 The Nature of Probability and Statistics1.1 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics1.2 Variables and Types of Data1.3 Data Collection and Sampling Techniques1.4 Observational and Experimental Studies1.5 Uses and Misuses of Statistics1.6 Computers and Calculators2 Frequency Distributions and Graphs2.1 Organizing Data2.2 Histograms, Frequency Polygons,and Ogives2.3 Other Types of Graphs3 Data Description3.1 Measures of CentralTendency3.2 Measures of Variation3.3 Measures of Position3.4 Exploratory Data Analysis4 Probability and Counting Rules4.1 Exploratory Data Analysis4.2 The Addition Rules for Probability4.3 The Multiplication Rules and ConditionalProbability4.4 Counting Rules4.5 Probability and Counting Rules5 Discrete Probability Distributions5.1 Probability Distributions5.2 Mean, Variance, Standard Deviation,and Expectation5.3 The Binomial Distribution5.4 Other Types of Distributions (Optional)6 The Normal Distribution6.1 Normal Distributions6.2 Applications of the NormalDistribution6.3 The Central Limit Theorem6.4 The Normal Approximation to the BinomialDistribution7 Confidence Intervals and Sample Size7.1 Confidence Intervals for the Mean When Ï Is Known7.2 Confidence Intervals for the Mean When Ï Is Unknown7.3 Confidence Intervals and Sample Size for Proportions7.4 Confidence Intervals for Variances and Standard Deviations8 Hypothesis Testing8.1 Steps in Hypothesis Testing-Traditional Method8.2 z Test for a Mean8.3 t Test for a Mean8.4 z Test for a Proportion8.5 Ï 2 Test for a Variance or Standard Deviation8.6 Additional Topics Regarding Hypothesis Testing9 Testing the Difference Between Two Means, Two Variances, and Two Proportions9.1 Testing the Difference Between Two Means: Using the z Test9.2 Testing the Difference Between Two Means of Independent Samples: Using the t Test9.3 Testing the Difference Between Two Means: Dependent Samples9.4 Testing the Difference Between Proportions9.5 Testing the Difference Between Two Variances10 Correlation and Regression10.1 Scatter Plots and Correlation10.2 Regression10.3 Coefficient of Determination and Standard Error of the Estimate10.4 Multiple Regression (Optional)11 Other Chi-Square Tests11.1 Test for Goodness of Fit11.2 Tests Using Contingency Tables12 Analysis of Variance12.1 One-Way Analysis of Variance12.2 The Scheffe Test and the Tukey Test12.3 Two-Way Analysis of Variance13 Nonparametric Statistics13.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonparametric Methods13.2 The Sign Test13.3 The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test13.4 The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test13.5 The Kruskal-Wallis Test13.6 The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient and the Runs Test14 Sampling and Simulation14.1 Common Sampling Techniques14.2 Surveys and Questionnaire Design14.3 Simulation Techniques and the Monte Carlo MethodAppendicesAppendix A: TablesAppendix B: Data BankAppendix C: GlossaryAppendix D: Photos Credits Appendix E: Selected AnswersAdditional Topics OnlneAlgebra ReviewWriting the Research ReportBayes' TheoremAlternate Approach to the Standard Normal DistributionBibliography
Allan G. Bluman is a professor emeritus at the Community College of Allegheny County, South Campus, near Pittsburgh. He has taught mathematics and statistics for over 35 years. He received an Apple for the Teacher award in recognition of his bringing excellence to the learning environment at South Campus. He has also taught statistics for Penn State University at the Greater Allegheny (McKeesport) Campus and at the Monroeville Center. He received his master's and doctor's degrees from the University of Pittsburgh. In addition to Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach (Eighth Edition (c)2012) and Elementary Statistics: A Brief Version (Fifth Edition (c)2010), Al is a co-author on a liberal arts mathematics text published by McGraw-Hill, Math in Our World (2nd Edition (c)2011). Al also the author of for mathematics books in the McGraw-Hill DeMystified Series. They are Pre-Algebra, Math Word Problems, Business Math, and Probability. Al Bluman is married and has two sons and a granddaughter.