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Effective Java
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Table of Contents

Foreword xi Preface xiii Acknowledgments xvii Chapter 1: Introduction 1 Chapter 2: Creating and Destroying Objects 5 Item 1: Consider static factory methods instead of constructors 5 Item 2: Consider a builder when faced with many constructor parameters 11 Item 3: Enforce the singleton property with a private constructor 17 Item 4: Enforce noninstantiability with a private constructor 19 Item 5: Avoid creating unnecessary objects 20 Item 6: Eliminate obsolete object references 24 Item 7: Avoid finalizers 27 Chapter 3: Methods Common to All Objects 33 Item 8: Obey the general contract when overriding equals 33 Item 9: Always override hashCode when you override equals 45 Item 10: Always override toString 51 Item 11: Override clone judiciously 54 Item 12: Consider implementing Comparable 62 Chapter 4: Classes and Interfaces 67 Item 13: Minimize the accessibility of classes and members 67 Item 14: In public classes, use accessor methods, not public fields 71 Item 15: Minimize mutability 73 Item 16: Favor composition over inheritance 81 Item 17: Design and document for inheritance or else prohibit it 87 Item 18: Prefer interfaces to abstract classes 93 Item 19: Use interfaces only to define types 98 Item 20: Prefer class hierarchies to tagged classes 100 Item 21: Use function objects to represent strategies 103 Item 22: Favor static member classes over nonstatic 106 Chapter 5: Generics 109 Item 23: Don't use raw types in new code 109 Item 24: Eliminate unchecked warnings 116 Item 25: Prefer lists to arrays 119 Item 26: Favor generic types 124 Item 27: Favor generic methods 129 Item 28: Use bounded wildcards to increase API flexibility 134 Item 29: Consider typesafe heterogeneous containers 142 Chapter 6: Enums and Annotations 147 Item 30: Use enums instead of int constants 147 Item 31: Use instance fields instead of ordinals 158 Item 32: Use EnumSet instead of bit fields 159 Item 33: Use EnumMap instead of ordinal indexing 161 Item 34: Emulate extensible enums with interfaces 165 Item 35: Prefer annotations to naming patterns 169 Item 36: Consistently use the Override annotation 176 Item 37: Use marker interfaces to define types 179 Chapter 7: Methods 181 Item 38: Check parameters for validity 181 Item 39: Make defensive copies when needed 184 Item 40: Design method signatures carefully 189 Item 41: Use overloading judiciously 191 Item 42: Use varargs judiciously 197 Item 43: Return empty arrays or collections, not nulls 201 Item 44: Write doc comments for all exposed API elements 203 Chapter 8: General Programming 209 Item 45: Minimize the scope of local variables 209 Item 46: Prefer for-each loops to traditional for loops 212 Item 47: Know and use the libraries 215 Item 48: Avoid float and double if exact answers are required 218 Item 49: Prefer primitive types to boxed primitives 221 Item 50: Avoid strings where other types are more appropriate 224 Item 51: Beware the performance of string concatenation 227 Item 52: Refer to objects by their interfaces 228 Item 53: Prefer interfaces to reflection 230 Item 54: Use native methods judiciously 233 Item 55: Optimize judiciously 234 Item 56: Adhere to generally accepted naming conventions 237 Chapter 9: Exceptions 241 Item 57: Use exceptions only for exceptional conditions 241 Item 58: Use checked exceptions for recoverable conditions and runtime exceptions for programming errors 244 Item 59: Avoid unnecessary use of checked exceptions 246 Item 60: Favor the use of standard exceptions 248 Item 61: Throw exceptions appropriate to the abstraction 250 Item 62: Document all exceptions thrown by each method 252 Item 63: Include failure-capture information in detail messages 254 Item 64: Strive for failure atomicity 256 Item 65: Don't ignore exceptions 258 Chapter 10: Concurrency 259 Item 66: Synchronize access to shared mutable data 259 Item 67: Avoid excessive synchronization 265 Item 68: Prefer executors and tasks to threads 271 Item 69: Prefer concurrency utilities to wait and notify 273 Item 70: Document thread safety 278 Item 71: Use lazy initialization judiciously 282 Item 72: Don't depend on the thread scheduler 286 Item 73: Avoid thread groups 288 Chapter 11: Serialization 289 Item 74: Implement Serializable judiciously 289 Item 75: Consider using a custom serialized form 295 Item 76: Write readObject methods defensively 302 Item 77: For instance control, prefer enum types to readResolve 309 Item 78: Consider serialization proxies instead of serialized instances 313 Appendix: Items Corresponding to First Edition 317 References 321 Index of Patterns and Idioms 327 Index 331

Promotional Information

This book is designed to help Java programmers make the most effective use of the Java programming language and its fundamental libraries, java.lang, java.util, and java.io. There are over 50 items or essays, each of which conveys one rule. Each rule captures best practices that have been tested in the real world. Just one of the key features in this book are the code examples that illustrate many useful design patterns and idoms. Another key feature is the advice on what not to do. Providing examples of what practices to avoid helps programmers side step common misconceptions and errors. While the second edition will cover all of the classic topics developers have come to rely on- objects, classes, libraries, methods, and serialization; new to this edition will be the coverage on generics, metadata, autoboxing, concurrency utilities, memory model, enumerations, and more. The book is based on the philosophy that clarity and simplicity are of paramount importance. The concise essays teach Java programmers of all levels how to write correct, clear, reusable, and effective code. Learning the art of Java programming, like most other disciples, consists of learning the rules and then learning when to violate them. With this book in hand, Java programmers will truly learn the rules and then learn when to violate them.

About the Author

Joshua Bloch is chief Java architect at Google and a Jolt Award winner. He was previously a distinguished engineer at Sun Microsystems and a senior systems designer at Transarc. Bloch led the design and implementation of numerous Java platform features, including JDK 5.0 language enhancements and the award-winning Java Collections Framework. He coauthored Java Puzzlers (Addison-Wesley, 2005) and Java Concurrency in Practice (Addison-Wesley, 2006).

Reviews

Raves for the First Edition! "I sure wish I had this book ten years ago. Some might think that I don't need any Java books, but I need this one." -James Gosling, fellow and vice president, Sun Microsystems, Inc. "An excellent book, crammed with good advice on using the Java programming language and object-oriented programming in general." -Gilad Bracha, coauthor of The Java (TM) Language Specification, Third Edition "10/10-anyone aspiring to write good Java code that others will appreciate reading and maintaining should be required to own a copy of this book. This is one of those rare books where the information won't become obsolete with subsequent releases of the JDK library." -Peter Tran, bartender, JavaRanch.com "The best Java book yet written.... Really great; very readable and eminently useful. I can't say enough good things about this book. At JavaOne 2001, James Gosling said, `Go buy this book!' I'm glad I did, and I couldn't agree more." -Keith Edwards, senior member of research staff, Computer Science Lab at the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), and author of Core JINI (Prentice Hall, 2000) "This is a truly excellent book done by the guy who designed several of the better recent Java platform APIs (including the Collections API)." -James Clark, technical lead of the XML Working Group during the creation of the XML 1.0 Recommendation, editor of the XPath and XSLT Recommendations "Great content. Analogous to Scott Meyers' classic Effective C++. If you know the basics of Java, this has to be your next book." -Gary K. Evans, OO mentor and consultant, Evanetics, Inc "Josh Bloch gives great insight into best practices that really can only be discovered after years of study and experience." -Mark Mascolino, software engineer "This is a superb book. It clearly covers many of the language/platform subtleties and trickery you need to learn to become a real Java master." -Victor Wiewiorowski, vice president development and code quality manager, ValueCommerce Co., Tokyo, Japan "I like books that under-promise in their titles and over-deliver in their contents. This book has 57 items of programming advice that are well chosen. Each item reveals a clear, deep grasp of the language. Each one illustrates in simple, practical terms the limits of programming on intuition alone, or taking the most direct path to a solution without fully understanding what the language offers." -Michael Ernest, Inkling Research, Inc. "I don't find many programming books that make me want to read every page-this is one of them." -Matt Tucker, chief technical officer, Jive Software "Great how-to resource for the experienced developer." -John Zukowski, author of numerous Java technology books "I picked this book up two weeks ago and can safely say I learned more about the Java language in three days of reading than I did in three months of study! An excellent book and a welcome addition to my Java library." -Jane Griscti, I/T advisory specialist

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