Section 1: Ultrasonography and use of the Echo Machine: 1. Essential Physics of Ultrasound and Use of the Echo Machine. Section 2: Standard Echocardiographic Examination. 2. Ultrasound Anatomy of the Heart:Transthoracic (TTE) Examination. 3. TTE in the ICU: The Patient Difficult to Study. 4. Ulrasound Anatomy of the Heart: Transesophageal (TEE) Examination. 5. Three-dimensional Echocardiography. Section 3: Essential Functional Echo-anatomy. 6. The Left Ventricle. 7. The Right Ventricle and Pulmonary Artery. 8. Left and Right Atrium. 9. Pericardium and Pericardial Diseases. 10. The Aorta. 11. The Inferior and Superior Vena Cava. 12. Ischemia and Myocardial Infarction. 13. The Cardiomyopathies. 14. Cor Pulmonale and Pulmonary Hypertension. 15. The Mitral Valve. 16. The Aortic Valve. 17. Tricuspid and Pulmonary Valves. 18. Endocarditis. 19. Prosthetic Valve Evaluation. 20. Cardiac Tumors and Masses. 21. Congenital Septal Abnormalities in the Adult Patient. 22. Essentials of Pediatric Echocardiography. Section 4: Echoradiography in the ICU and OR: Basic and Advanced Applications: 23. Echo-history, Echo-monitoring, Goal-directed, Focus-oriented Echo-anamnesis, and Comprehensive Examination. 24. Intraoperative Echocardiography in Cardiac Surgery. 25. General Hemodynamic Assessment. 26. Contrast Echocardiography in the ICU and OR. 27. Echo-tailored Management of Acute Ischemia. 28. Hypovolemia and Fluid-responsiveness. 29. ARDS, ALI, Mechanical Ventilation, and Weaning. 30. Hypotension. 31. Suspicion of Pulmonary Embolism. 32. Suspect of Acute Aortic Diseases. 33. Chest Pain. 34. Acute Dyspnea. 35. Unexplained Hypoxemia. 36. Sepsis. 37. Chest Trauma. 38. Acute Atrial Fibrillation and other Arrhythmias. 39. The Multiorgan Donor and the Heart-transplanted Patient. 40. New-onset Cardiac Murmur. 41. ICU Echocardiography and Noninvasive Haemodynamic Monitoring: the Integrated Approach. Section 5: Ultrasound in the ICU: Other Applications: 42. Echocardiography and Life Support. 43. Central and Peripheral Vein Cannulation. 44. Essential Ultrasound for Venous Thrombosis. 45. Lung and Pleural Ultrasonogrpahy in Emergency and Intensive Care. 46. Echo-FAST. 47. Doppler Ultrasound in Renal Failure. 48. Ultrasound for Percutaneous Tracheostomy. 49. Transcranial Doppler in the ICU. 50. Ultrasound of the Optic Nerve.- Appendix: Formulae and Normal Values.