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Drugs and the Neuroscience of Behavior


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Table of Contents

Preface About the Author 1 Introduction to Psychopharmacology Psychopharmacology Why Read a Book on Psychopharmacology? Drugs: Administered Substances That Alter Physiological Functions Psychoactive Drugs: Described by Manner of Use Generic Names, Trade Names, and Street Names for Drugs Drug Effects: Determined by Dose Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacogenetics Psychoactive Drugs: Objective and Subjective Effects Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs Validity: Addressing the Quality and Impact of a Study Animals and Advancing Medical Research Researchers Consider Many Ethical Issues When Conducting Human Research FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Therapeutic Drug Development CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS 2 The Nervous System Cells in the Nervous System The Nervous System: Control of Behavior and Physiological Functions Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebrospinal Fluid Genes and the Physiological Processes of Cells FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Gilal Scars and Recovery From Brain Injury CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS 3 Neurotransmission Electrical Events Within a Neuron and the Release of Neurotransmitters Nerve Impulses: Electrical Potential Changes in Neurons Propagation of Action Potentials Down Axons Neurotransmitters: Signaling Molecules for Neuronal Communication Neurotransmission: Neurotransmitter Binding to Receptors Different Types of Neurotransmitters and Communication Monoamine Neurotransmitters: Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, and Serotonin Acetylcholine Neuropeptides: A Large Class of Neurotransmitters Nitric Oxide: A Unique Neurotransmitter Other Types of Chemical Transmission in the Nervous System FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Treating Alzheimer's Disease CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS 4 Properties of Drugs Pharmacokinetic Properties and Drug Passage Through the Body Pharmacodynamics: Describing the Actions of Drugs Psychoactive Drugs and Receptors Neurotoxins and Damage to the Nervous System Adaptations to Chronic Drug Use FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Heroin Tolerance and Overdose CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS 5 Drugs of Abuse Regulatory Agencies and Drug Classification Clinical Definitions and the Diagnosis of Drug Addiction Theoretical Models and the Features of Drug Addiction Drugs of Abuse and Reward Circuitry Drug Abuse and Changes to Learning and Memory Systems Neurobiology and the Stages of Drug Addiction Mortality and Drug Addiction Psychological and Pharmacological Therapies for Treating Drug Dependence FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Food Addiction CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS 6 Psychostimulants Psychostimulants: A Large Variety of Substances Psychostimulants: Herbal Remedies, Prescription Drugs, and Substances of Abuse Pharmacokinetics of Psychostimulants Psychostimulants and Monoamine Neurotransmitters Pharmacological Effects of Psychostimulants FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Treatments for Psychostimulant Addiction CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS 7 Nicotine and Caffeine Nicotine: Key Psychoactive Ingredient in Tobacco Discovery of Tobacco Tobacco Use and Pharmacokinetic Properties Nicotine and Nervous System Functioning Nicotine's Potent Pharmacological Effects Nicotine Affects Movement and Cognitive Functioning Environmental, Genetic, and Receptor Differences Between Light and Heavy Tobacco Users FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Why People Smoke and How They Quit Caffeine Caffeine Absorption, Duration, and Interaction With Other Psychoactive Drugs Caffeine: Antagonist for Adenosine Receptors Caffeine: Mild Psychostimulant Effects Tolerance and Dependence During Sustained Caffeine Use FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Why People Consume Caffeinated Products CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS 8 Alcohol Alcohol: The Most Commonly Used Depressant Substance Alcohol Production Through Fermentation and Distillation The History of Alcohol Consumption Pharmacokinetic Factors and Alcohol's Effects Alcohol and Central Nervous System Functioning Pharmacological Effects of Alcohol Treating Alcohol Addiction FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Hangover CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS 9 GHB and Inhalants Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate History of GHB Inhalants FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Stimulus Properties of GHB and Toluene CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS 10 Opioids Opioids: Natural and Synthetic History of Opium Use Pharmacokinetic Properties and Opioid Abuse Opioid Drug Interactions With the Endogenous Opioid System Opioid Drugs: Classification by Receptor Action Opioid System Interactions With Reward, Pain, and Stress Systems Opioid Reinforcing and Analgesic Effects FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Pharmacological Approaches for Treating Opioid Addiction CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS 11 Cannabinoids Historical Use of Cannabis Methods of Cannabis Preparation and Use Cannabinoid Compounds and the Endocannabinoid System Cannabinoids and CB1 and CB2 Receptors Physiological Effects of Cannabinoids Behavioral Effects of Cannabinoids Subjective Effects of Cannabinoids Cannabinoid Tolerance and Dependence Cannabis and Health Risk FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Medical Marijuana CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS 12 Psychedelic Drugs Hallucinogens LSD's Mild Physiological Effects and Profound Hallucinogenic Effects Mixed Stimulant-Psychedelic Drugs Recreational Use of Dissociative Anesthetics Other Psychedelic Drugs FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Synesthesia CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS 13 Treatments for Depression and Bipolar Disorder Mental Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Pharmacogenetic Factors and Treatment Response in Depression CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS 14 Treatments for Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders Structures Involved in Fear and Anxiety Anxious Feelings, the Amygdala, and the Sympathetic Nervous System Stress and the HPA Axis Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Drugs and the Treatment of Anxiety FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: How Do Antidepressant Drugs Reduce Anxiety? CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS 15 Antipsychotic Drugs Schizophrenia Schizophrenia's Complex Neurobiological Profile A Brief History of Schizophrenia and Its Treatment Neurotransmission Hypotheses for Schizophrenia Typical and Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs Antipsychotic Drugs and Autism FROM ACTIONS TO EFFECTS: Antipsychotic Drug Actions and Neurotransmission in Schizophrenia CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS References Author Index Subject Index

About the Author

Dr. Adam Prus is a professor and head of psychology at Northern Michigan University in Marquette, Michigan. He earned his PhD in psychology from Virginia Commonwealth University and a master's degree in psychology from Western Michigan University. While in graduate school, Prus also worked as a research technician at a large pharmaceutical company, where he screened central nervous system drugs using various biological assays. After earning his PhD, Dr. Prus investigated experimental antipsychotic drugs as a postdoctoral fellow in the Psychopharmacology Division of the Department of Psychiatry at Vanderbilt University. Dr. Prus has published numerous original studies on psychoactive drugs, including studies funded by the National Institute on Mental Illness and private foundations. At NMU, he directs the Neuropsychopharmacology Laboratory, where he enjoys mentoring undergraduate and graduate students and spends too much time fixing lab equipment. When he is not teaching, training students, writing books or conducting research, Dr. Prus spends time with his wife and two children, and together they enjoy outdoor activities in Michigan's Upper Peninsula, where NMU is located.

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