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Diseases of Trees and Shrubs

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Table of Contents

Contents About this book How to use this book Dedication and acknowledgments Diseases caused by fungi Overview of fungal diseases of woody plants Diseases caused by Ascomycota Foliar diseases Taphrina diseases: leaf curls and blisters, bladder plum, witches'-brooms Powdery mildews Witches'-broom of hackberry and black witches'-broom of serviceberry Dark fungi on plants: sooty molds, black mildews, and others Spot anthracnoses and scabs caused by Elsinoe and Sphaceloma Diseases caused by Mycosphaerella species and related anamorphs Overview Leaf spots of ash, walnut, citrus, rose, mountain-ash, sycamore Septoria diseases of poplar and other plants Brown spot needle blight of pines Dothistroma needle blight of pines Stigmina leaf spot of palms Mycosphaerella leaf spot of Yucca Blights and leaf spots caused by fungi of the Cercospora complex "Cercospora" blights of Cupressaceae Some "Cercospora" leaf spots Linden leaf blotch, and leaf spots caused by Coniothyrium, Microsphaeropsis, Sonderhenia, and "Hendersonia" Ascochyta blight of lilac Leaf spots and blotches caused by Cuignardia and Phyllosticta Diseases caused by Cuignardia species: leaf blotch of horse-chestnut and buckeye, leaf spot of Boston ivy, black rot of grapevine Phyllosticta leaf spots and blotches of dogwood, hazelnut, witch-hazel, maples Tubakia leaf spot of oaks and other trees and fly-speck leaf spot of Vaccinium Needle blights and needle casts of conifers Lophodermium needle casts Ploioderma needle casts of pines Canavirgella and Davisomycella needle casts of pines Elytroderma needle casts of pines Lonhodermella and Cvclaneusma needle casts of pines Rhizosphaera and Isthmiella needle casts Rhabdocline and Swiss needle casts of Douglas-fir Meria needle blight of larch and Didymascella leaf blight of cedar Snow blights Brown felt blights Tar spots Ink spot leaf blight of aspen and poplar Ovulinia petal blight of Rhododendron and Ciborinia flower blight of Camellia Botrytis blight Cristulariella leaf spots Brown rot of stone fruits Entomosporium leaf spot of Maloideae Black spot of rose and Blumeriella leaf spot of cherry and plum Marssonina spots and blights Leaf spots and blights of aspen and poplar Anthracnoses of birch and bittersweet Alternaria blights and leaf spots Shoot blights and twig diebacks Scab diseases caused by Venturia species Apple scab Scabs of firethorn, loquat, and toyon Venturia leaf and shoot blights of aspen and poplar Scab and black canker of willow and Venturia leaf blotch of maple Bronze leaf disease of aspen and poplar and Linospora leaf blight of balsam poplars Anthracnoses Anthracnose overview and black spot of elm Ash anthracnose Oak anthracnose Sycamore anthracnose Walnut anthracnose and Gnomonia leaf spots of hickory and pecan Doewood anthracnose Anthracnoses of birch, filbert, and redbud Anthracnoses and Didymosporina leaf soot of maples Cankers and diebacks Hornbeam anthracnose Anthracnoses and diebacks caused by Clomerella and Colletotrichum Butternut canker Sirococcus blight of conifers Ceratocystis cankers Diseases caused by Botryo~phaeria and allied fungi Botryosphaeria cankers and diebacks Cankers, dieback, and leaf blight caused by B. dolliidea and B. Ribis Cankers and dieback caused by: B. stevensii and Diplodia quercina B. queicuum and related fungi on oak B. obtuse B. rhodina Diplodia (Spiiaeropsis) blight of pines and other conifers Sphaeropsis canker and dieback of elm Sphaeropsis knot and Dipiodia gall Melanconis diebacks and sooty canker Diseases caused by Diaportlx and Phomopsis species Diaporthc and Phomopsis cankers and cliebacks Overview Phomopsis canker of Russian-olive Diseases of Rhododendron Phomopsis cankers of almond and peach Diseases associated with the Diaporihe eres complex Phomopsis dieback of poplar Diaporthe canker and dieback of sycamore Phomopsis dieback of weeping figOther cankers and diebacks caused by Diaporthe and Plioniopsis Diaporthe and Phomousis cankers of conifers Phomopsis, Kabatina. and Scleronlioma blights of juniper and other gymnosperms Stem galls Phomopsis sails Phomopsis canker of Cardenici and Nectriella gall of ornamental plants Black knot of Prunus Cankers and diebacks, continued Cryptodiaporthe cankers Cryptodiaporthe canker of poplar Cryptodiaporthe canker of willow Golden canker of alternate-leaf clogwood Eastern filbert blight Chestnut blight Chrysoporthe canker of Eucalyptus Endothia canker Leucostoma and Valsa cankers Overview Valsa cankers and diebacks of conifers Leucostoma canker of spruce and other conifers Leucostoma cankers of Pruniis Leucostoma and Valsa cankers of poplar and willow Valsa cankers of maple Cryptosporiopsis canker of red maple Nectria cankers and diebacks Coral-spot Nectria canker Tubercularia canker and dieback Thyronectria canker of honeylocust Perennial Nectria canker Beech bark disease Fusarium cankers Cankers caused by Fusarium solani or F. Iateritium Pitch canker of pines Pestalotiopsis spots, blights, and diebacks Sciridium cankers of cypress Cryptosphaeria canker of aspen Eutypella canker of maples Cankers and diebacks caused by Xylariaccous fungi Entoleuca (Hypoxylon) canker of aspen Biscogniauxia cankers and diebacks Biscogniauxia (Hypoxylon) diebacks of oaks Blister canker Camillea- and Hypoxylon-associated cankers and diebacks Basal canker and butt rot caused by Kretzschmaria deusta Cankers and diebacks caused by discomycetes Sooty-bark canker of aspen and poplar Ceningium dieback of pines Scleroderris canker of conifers Atropellis cankers of pines Lachnellula cankers of conifers and Strumella canker of hardwoods Root diseases Charcoal root rot and Fusarium root rots Root rots and blights caused by Cylindrocladium and Cylindrocladiclla Phymatotrichum and Thiclaviopsis root rots Xylaria and Rosellinia root rots Rhizina root rot and southern blight Procerum root disease of pines Systemic fungal diseases Black stain root disease of conifers Ceratocystis cankers Ceratocystis cankers of Populus and Prunus Canker-stain of planetree and sycamore Sapstreak disease and bluestain Oak wilt Dutch elm disease Verticillium wilt Persimmon wilt Fusarium wilts Diseases caused by Basidiomycota Foliar diseases Exobasidium galls and blisters Articularia and Microstroma leaf spots and witches'-brooms Insolibasidium blight of honeysuckle and false smut of palms Diseases caused by Rhizoctonia-forming fungi Rusts Overview of rusts Phragmidiurn rusts Gymnosporangium rusts Overview Cedar-apple rust Hawthorn rust Quince rust Juniper broom rust Broom rust of incense-cedar and rust galls on south-western junipers Medlar rust Additional Gymnosporangium rusts Puccinia and Cumminsiella rusts Ash rust Cluster-cup rust of currant and gooseberry Crown rust of buckthorn Rusts on Berberis and Mahonia Fig rust and birch rust Pucciniastrum and allied rusts Hemlock-hydrangea rust Hemlock-blueberry rusts Fir-fireweed and fuschia rusts Fir-blueberry rust Other Pucciniastrum and Thekopsora rusts in North America Fir-fern rusts Broom rust of fir Melampsora rusts Poplar rusts Willow rusts Chrysomyxa rusts of spruce Needle rusts of pines Stem and cone rusts of pines Overview of North American Cronartium rusts White pine blister rust Fusiform rust and pine-oak gall rusts Sweetfern blister rust Stalactiform and Comandra blister rusts Limb rusts and cone rusts Western gall rust Trunk and limb rots of hardwoods Overview of wood types and decay processes Representative decay fungi: Stereum gausapatum, Hericium erinaceus, Phellinus species, Climacodon septentrionalis, Bjerkandera adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Globifomes graveolens, Perenniporia fraxinophila, Oxyporus populinus, Trametes versicolor, Polyporus squamosus, Laetiporus species, Piptoporus betulinus Canker-rots of hardwoods Spiculosa canker Canker rots of birch Hispidus canker, heart rot and canker-rot caused by Inonotus andersonii, canker-rot caused by Inonotus glomeratus Sapwood rot and cankers caused by Cerrena unicolor and Schizophyllum commune Sapwood decay and silverleaf caused by Chondrostereum purpureum Trunk rots and canker-rots of conifers Heart rots caused by Fomitoosis pinicola and Echinodontium tinctorium Heart rot caused by Phellinus pini and canker rot caused by P. cancriformans Root diseases Southern blight Rhizoctonia diseases Armillaria root rots Mushroom root rot Root and butt rots caused by Heterobasidion species Red root and bun rot of conifers Brown root and butt rot of conifers Laminated root rots of conifers Root and butt rots caused by Inonotus dryadeus and Oxyporus latemareinatus Ganoderma root and butt rots and trunk decay Overview Root and bun rot of palms Diseases of woody dicots caused by laccate Ganodermas Ganodermas on conifers Diseases caused by Ganoderma applanaturn and related fungi Diseases caused by Oomycota Overview of Oomycctes Downy mildews Diseases caused by Phytophthora species Overview Shoot blights, diebacks, and fruit rots Cankers, collar and crown rots, foot rots, and root rots Diseases caused by Phytoplithora rarnorum Collar, crown, and foot rots Root rots and feeder root necroses Root and crown rot of Port Orford cedar Diseases caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Other Phytophthora root rots Bacterial diseases Overview Leaf spots, blights, and cankers Diseases caused by Pseudomonas species Diseases caused by Xanthomonas species: citrus canker, bacterial spot of Prunus, bacterial blight of walnut, and others Fire blight Bleeding bacterial cankers Bacterial galls of olive, oleander, and ash Crown gall Wetwood, slime flux, alcoholic flux Bacterial scorch diseases Overview Representative diseases: Pierce's disease of grapevine, almond leaf scorch, bacterial scorch of landscape trees and shrubs Diseases caused by mollicutes Overview Representative diseases: pear decline, Primus yellow leafroll, stubborn disease of citrus, walnut witches'-broom, bunch disease of pecan and other hickories, witches'-brooms of lilac and other plants Elm yellows Ash yellows X-disease of Prunus Lethal yellowing of palms Viral diseases Overview and plant virus diagnosis Diseases caused by nepoviruses: Prunus stem pitting, apple brown line, Forsythia yellow net, ash diseases, and others Diseases caused by carlaviruses: poplar mosaic, lilac mottle, and others Diseases caused by ilarviruses: sour cherry yellows, Prunus necrotic ringspot, apple mosaic, rose mosaic, and others Diseases associated with cucumoviruses, potyviruses, foveaviruses, varicosaviruses: leaf and flower reddening in Nandina, necrotic spots and ring mottle in Prunus, Camellia yellow mottle Diseases associated with tobamoviruses: tobacco mosaic and tomato mosaic viruses, and others Diseases associated with rhabdoviruses, necroviruses, Tobacco necrosis virus Diseases caused by virus-like agents not fully characterized Rose rosette Diseases of Rhododendron and related plants, Rhododendron necrotic ringspot Viral diseases of aspen and poplar Redbud and hibiscus diseases Apple flatlimb Viral symptoms in Acer, Cliaenorneles, Liquidambar, Liriodendron, Lonicera, Magnolia Striped chlorosis of Albizia, fig mosaic, oak viruses, viral symptoms in Bougainvillea, Celtis, Euonynius Viral diseases of conifers Diseases caused by Nematodes Overview of plant-parasitic nematodes Representative nematodes that attack roots: root knot nematodes, burrowing nematode, stunt nematodes, lesion nematodes, dagger nematodes Wilt of pines caused by pine wood nematodes Plant-pathogenic algae and plants Algal leaf spot, or green scurf North American leafy mistletoes Characteristics and habits of Phoradendron Mistletoes on angiosperms Mistletoes primarily on gymnosperms Dwarf mistletoes Overview Representative dwarf mistletoes: Arceuthobium arnericanuni, A. carnpylopodurn complcx (A. campylopodum, A, occidentale, A. laricis, A. tsugense, others), A. douglasii, A. gillii, A. vaginatum, A. pusillum Cassytha and dodder Vines that damage trees Declines, environmental damage, and unexplained growth abnormalities Decline diseases with multiple or obscure causal factors Concepts and overview Maple decline Ash decline Birch decline, pine declines Oak decline, citrus blight Damage by environmental factors Damage by salt and other inorganic poisons Damage by misapplied pesticides Injuries and diseases caused by air pollutants Overview Damage by ozone Damage by sulfur dioxide Damage by fluorides and minor pollutant gases Mineral nutrient deficiencies Damage by drought, heat, and freezing Water shortage Heat stress Frost and freeze damage Predisposition to attack by opportunistic pathogens Damage by flooding or waterlogged soil Damage by girdling roots, hail, ice glaze, and sheet ice Lightning damage Noninfectious and unexplained growth abnormalities: fasciation, chimeras, graft union abnormalities, adventitious shoots and roots, galls, burls, witches'-brooms Restoration of sapwood and bark after injury or infection Wounds, microbial colonization, and compartmentalization Frost cracks, drought cracks, and related defects Bark formation and restoration Associations of normal woody plants with other organisms Smooth patch, bark rot, and normal foliar shedding Symbiotic relationships of roots: mycorrhizae, nitrogen-fixing associations Epiphytes, lichens, and moss Glossary References Index

About the Author

Wayne A. Sinclair is Professor Emeritus of Plant Pathology at Cornell University. Howard H. Lyon was from 1950 to 1985 the photographer for the Department of Plant Pathology at Cornell University.


Three Cornell University scientists have produced a needed up-to-date pictorial reference source that comprehensively covers disease and environmental damage to trees and shrubs in the United States and Canada. With 247 pages of color plates and authoritative accompanying text, this is a handy diagnostic aid that uses specific symptoms on plant parts or entire plants to identify the disease-causing agent of an infected plant. It may be used by anyone with knowledge of general biology as well as by someone with specialized plant knowledge for diagnosing plant disease problems. Highly recommended. Dale Luchsinger, Cobb Cty. P.L., Marietta, Ga.

"This is an absolute 'must have' for all professional tree people. A complete and thorough revision of the 1987 classic, it contains more than 2,000 digitally optimized color images of all important diseases of trees and woody ornamentals of the US and Canada. Having used the original book as a disease bible a gazillion times, this reviewer was amazed to discover that the authors could make such substantial improvements. Most of the color plates are completely new sets of photos, and they are of the highest quality. Important new diseases that have come onto the scene in the last 20 years, such as dogwood anthracnose, have been added. The authors have introduced a number of new microscopic figures to help in the positive identification of various pathogens. The complete references now number more than 4,500, with a searchable CD-ROM included to help explore this extensive background literature. As in the first volume, the authors do a wonderfully thorough job with the descriptive information presented for diseases. This reference classic should be part of the library of every plant health care specialist, forester, horticulturist, and student in the field. Essential."-Choice, April 2006 "A truly superior reference work returns new and improved, with both form and content reflecting advances in knowledge. The high praise that met the 1987 release of this book's first edition-one reviewer called it one of the 'ten best horticultural books of the century'-seems equally deserved for the second edition. 'Diseases' describes 470 afflictions affecting more than 300 species and occurring in the temperate regions of the United States and Canada; another 50 chemical, physical, or unknown agents are also portrayed. This is a diagnostic manual, and as such, discussion of control measures is negligible. Far from resting on their laurels, Sinclair and Lyon have made some key improvements to their work. Perhaps the most striking of these are the book's distinctly sharper, digitally optimized images, more than 2000 of them in color. For readers who need further information, there is also the addition of a CD-ROM, which provides swift and easy access to the book's 4500 references. Those who teach (or study) the subject may appreciate Sinclair and Lyon's tweaks to the preliminary apparatus in the new edition, changes that help make a prodigious amount of technical information a little more intelligible. Fairly easy diagnostic reference is made possible with an index that lists both the scientific (genus judiciously boldfaced) and common names of plants. Bottom Line: This book will continue to be the standard reference for those who deal with tree and shrub pathology professionally, but gardeners with problems will find it just as indispensable. (Amateurs, of course, might do just as well examining the pictures.) An essential purchase for special horticultural, academic, and large public collections."-Library Journal (starred review) "The book arrives at a time of biological globalization and environmental change bearing the high risk of new pathogen introductions and emerging diseases. It is therefore indispensible also for forest pathologists outside of North America. The main emphasis of the book is on infectious disease, but nutrient deficiencies, damages by heat, drought and freezing, sides effects of pesticides and damages by air pollution are also included... This book is of the highest possible quality and it is a really magnificent resource for anybody who is facing the challenge of tree disease diagnosis. Moreover, the book is a celebration of biodiversity associated with woody plants as well as an aesthetic enjoyment."-O.Holdenrieder, Forest Pathology, 2006

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