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Design of Thermal Oxidation Systems for Volatile Organic Compounds

Controlling the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) became a very prominent environmental issue with the passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, and will continue to be an environmental priority through the next decade. No single technology has played as important a role in the control of VOC emissions as thermal oxidation. It has the ability to destroy VOCs in a one-step process that produces innocuous by-products. "Design of Thermal Oxidation Systems for Volatile Organic Compounds" provides all the information needed for developing a thermal oxidation design in a single reference. It covers design, operation, and maintenance as well as the principles behind the classification of volatile organic compounds as hazardous waste.The author explores the primary purpose of thermal oxidizers and discusses their limitations. The book provides: practical, complete, and concise thermal oxidizer design principles; an outline of state-of-the-art design principles; a practical rather than theoretical approach; and, real industrial examples in each chapter. With the new regulations that affect VOC emissions, engineers from such diverse fields as oil refining, chemical distillation and separation processes, and pharmaceutical industries will need to design and implement thermal oxidation systems. "Design of Thermal Oxidation Systems for Volatile Organic Compounds" provides a reference to the entire design process, from conceptualization to operation and maintenance.
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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION Combustion History of Air Pollution Thermal Oxidation's Wide Applicability Air Pollutant Emissions in the United States Industrial Sources of Air Pollution ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS Federal Law - State Implementation 1990 Clean Air Act Titles VOC DESTRUCTION EFFICIENCY Operating Parameters Destruction Efficiency EPA Incinerability Ranking Environmental Regulations Halogenated Compounds COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY Generalized Oxidation Reactions Highly Halogenated VOCs Chemical Equilibrium Dewpoint Products of Incomplete Combustion (PICs) Substoichiometric Combustion Emission Correction Factors MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE Fundamentals Energy Balance Lower and Higher Heating Values Auxiliary Fuels Mass-to-Volume Heat Release Conversions Mixture Heating Values VOC Heating Value Approximations Heat of Formation Water Quench Auxiliary Fuel Addition Adiabatic Flame Temperature Excess Air Wet vs Dry Combustion Products Simplified Calculational Procedures WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION Waste Stream Characterization Waste Stream Variability Minor Contaminants - Major Problems Classifications Liquid Waste Streams THERMAL OXIDIZER DESIGN Burners Residence Chamber Refractory Insulation Thermal Conductivity Heat Loss Mixing Plenums and Nozzles Typical Arrangements HEAT RECOVERY Heat Exchangers Waste Heat Boilers (WHB) Heat Transfer Fluids Water Heating Drying Regenerative Heat Recovery CATALYTIC OXIDATION Applications Theory Basic Equipment and Operation Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) Catalyst Design Operation Halogens Catalytic vs. Thermal Oxidation Waste Gas Heating Value Effects Catalyst Deactivation Deactivation Indicators Regeneration Performance Comparison Pilot Testing Summary REGENERATIVE SYSTEMS Evolution of the RTO Basic Concept Thermal Efficiency Number of Heat Sink (Regenerator) Beds Purge System Bed Orientation Thermal Efficiency vs Cycle Time Heat Sink Materials Flow Diverter Valve Single-Chamber Design Auxiliary Fuel Injection Pollutant Emissions Effect of Waste Stream Component on Design and Operation Exhaust Temperature Control Waste Stream Motive Force Regenerative Catalytic Oxidizers (RCO) Retrofit of RTO COMBUSTION NOx CONTROL Characterizing/Converting NOx Emission Levels NOx Formation Mechanisms Thermal NOx Equilibrium/Kinetics Parametric Affects Fuel Type Affects NOx Prediction Low NOx Burners Vitiated Air Flue Gas Recirculation (FGR) Fuel-Induced Recirculation (FIR) Water/Stream Injection Air/Fuel Staging Staged Air Oxidation for Chemically Bound Nitrogen Effect of Sulfur POST-COMBUSTION NOx CONTROL Selective Noncatalytic Reduction (SNCR) Chemistry Effect of Temperature Normalized Stoichiometric Ratio NOx Inlet Loading Effect of Residence Time Effect of POC Carbon Monoxide Concentration Practical Reduction Levels Injection Methods Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling Ammonia Slip Reagent By-Products Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) GAS SCRUBBING SYSTEMS Wet Scrubbers Dry Systems Hybrid Systems SAFETY SYSTEMS Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) Minimum Oxygen Concentration Flashback Velocity Flashback Prevention Techniques Combustion Safeguards Typical Natural Gas Fuel Train Start-Up Sequence Interlocks Lead/Lag Temperature Control Electrical Hazard Classifications DESIGN CHECKLIST Primary Objectives Scope of Supply Process Conditions Design Requirements Performance Requirements Auxiliary Equipment Utilities Available Environment Preferred Equipment/Approved Vendors Start-Up Assistance Spare Parts Design Documentation Appendix A - Incinerability Ranking Appendix B - Table of the Elements Appendix C - Heats of Combustion of Organic Compounds Appendix D - Abbreviated Steam Tables Appendix E - Explosive Limits of VOCs References Bibliography Index


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