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Deepwater Foundations and Pipeline Geomechanics
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Chapter 1 - Deepwater Foundations and Pipeline GeomechanicsWilliam O. McCarron1.1 Introduction1.2 Integrated Geophysical Investigations1.3 Foundation Concept Selection and Design1.4 Pipeline Geomechanics1.5 Foundation Analysis and Centrifuge Model Testing1.6 Probabilistic Risk Analysis1.7 ReferencesChapter 2 - Deepwater Integrated Geosciences Studies Alan G. Young and Vernon Kasch 2.1 Introduction2.1.1 Chapter Overview2.1.2 Technological Improvements2.2 Objective of an Integrated Site Investigation2.3 Spatial Variability and Data Uncertainty2.4 Planning Study with 3D Seismic Data2.5 Geophysical Site Survey2.5.1 Data Acquisition2.5.2 Deepwater Geophysical Tools2.5.3 Deepwater Geophysical Survey2.5.3.1 Single-Beam Echo-Sounder2.5.3.2 Multi-beam Echo-Sounder2.5.3.3 Side-Scan Sonar2.5.3.4 Sub-Bottom Profiler2.6 Geotechnical Site Investigation2.6.1 Deepwater Data Acquisition2.7 Performing the Geotechnical Site Investigation2.7.1 Sampling Procedures2.7.1.1 Seabed Samplers2.7.1.2 Down-hole Samplers2.7.2 Deepwater In situ Testing Methods2.7.3 Cone Penetrometer Testing2.7.3.1 Seabed CPT Equipment2.7.3.2 Downhole CPT Equipment2.7.3.3 Operational and Technological Improvements2.7.4 Use of CPT Data2.7.4.1 Soil Classification2.7.4.2 Undrained Shear Strength2.7.4.3 Strength Ratio 2.7.4.4 Overconsolidation Ratio (OCR) 2.7.5 In situ Vane Shear Testing2.7.5.1 Seabed VST2.7.5.2 Downhole VST 2.7.6 Use of VST Data 2.7.6.1 Undrained Shear Strength2.7.7 In situ Piezoprobe2.8 Integrated Case Studies2.8.1 Geologic Setting and Field Architectures2.8.2 Mad Dog and Atlantis Geo-Constraints2.8.3 Refining Integrated Geologic Model2.8.3.1 Mad Dog Geologic Model2.8.4 Geotechnical Investigation Objectives2.8.5 Laboratory Testing Program2.8.5.1 Shallow Seabed Samples2.8.5.2 Age Dating Shallow Sediments2.8.5.3 Down-hole Samples2.8.5.4 Shear Strength Testing Interpretation2.8.6 In situ Data Interpretation2.8.7 Interpreted Shear Strength Profile2.8.8 Uncertainty in Data Interpretation2.8.9 Final Geologic/Geotechnical Model Integration2.8.9.1 Chrono-Stratigraphic Markers2.8.10 Site Favorability Assessment2.8.10.1 Slope Gradient/Reversal (Irregular Seafloor Topography) 2.8.10.2 Fault Displacement/Offset2.8.10.3 Slope Instability2.8.10.4 Shallow-Seated Slope Failures2.8.10.5 Deep-Seated Slope Failures2.8.10.6 Debris Flows/Turbidity Currents2.8.10.7 Highly Variable Soil Conditions (Spatial Soil Provinces)2.8.10.8 Shallow Water Flow2.8.11 Foundation Site Evaluation2.8.11.1 Foundation Selection2.9 Objective and Benefits of Integrated Geosciences Studies2.10 Summary2.11 Acknowledgements2.12 ReferencesChapter 3 - Deepwater Foundation Design Alan G. Young, James D. Murff and Jill A. Rivette 3.1 Background3.2 Deepwater Foundation Applications3.2.1 Foundations for Moorings3.2.2 Foundations for Seafloor Facilities3.3 Foundation Design Requirements3.3.1 Analytical Procedures3.3.2 Interpreted Soil Properties3.3.3 Soil Strength Profile3.4 Deepwater Anchors3.5 Anchor Line3.5.1 Post Tensioning of the Anchor3.5.2 Interaction Tensioning of the Anchor3.6 Pipe Piles3.6.1 Driven Pipe Piles3.6.2 Axial Capacity3.6.3 Lateral Capacity3.6.4 Jetted Piles3.7 Drilled and Grouted Piles3.8 Suction Caisson3.8.1 Suction Caisson Design Geometry3.8.2 Key Design Factors3.8.3 Design Procedures3.8.4 Installation Procedure3.9 Vertically Loaded Plate Anchors (VLA) 3.9.1 VLA Geometry3.9.2 Key Design Factors3.9.3 Installation Procedures3.9.4 Anchor Installation Plan and Performance3.10 SELPA3.11 Gravity Installed Anchors3.11.1 Installation Procedures3.11.2 Design Methods3.12 Foundations for Seafloor Facilities3.12.1 Mudmat Design Geometry3.12.2 Key Design Factors3.12.3 Design Procedures3.13 Summary3.14 ReferencesChapter 4 - Driven Pile Design for Tension Leg Platforms Earl H. Doyle 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Pile Installation4.3 Design of Piles 4.4 Preliminary Design Considerations 4.5 Soil Properties4.6 Axial Capacity 4.7 Sustained (Creep) Loading 4.8 Cyclic Stresses 4.9 Installation Set Up 4.10 Lateral Capacity4.11 Installation Clearances 4.12 Installation Stability 4.13 Drivability and Driving Induced Fatigue Calculations 4.14 ReferencesChapter 5 - Pipeline Geohazards for Arctic Conditions Andrew C. Palmer and Ken Been 5.1 Ice Gouging5.1.1 Introduction5.1.2 Ice Gouge Surveys5.1.3 Ice Gouging and Subgouge Displacements5.1.4 Pipeline Strain Calculations5.2 Strudel Scour5.3 Stamukha Pits5.3.1 Stamukha - Pipeline Interaction Frequency5.3.2 Effect of Pits on Pipelines5.4 References Chapter 6 - The Application of Centrifuge Model Testing to Deepwater Geotechnical Problems Edward C. Clukey and Mark F. Randolph 6.1 Introduction6.2 Principles of Centrifuge Model Testing6.3 Previous Centrifuge Model Testing6.4 Suction Caissons6.5 Alternate Deepwater Foundation Solution6.5.1 Suction Embedded Plate Anchors6.5.2 Torpedo Anchors6.6 Conductor Fatigue6.7 Flowlines and Pipelines6.8 Facilities, Logistics and Rationale for Centrifuge Modeling6.9 Conclusions6.10 ReferencesChapter 7 - Reliability of Offshore Foundations Robert B. Gilbert 7.1 Introduction7.2 Methods for Reliability Analysis7.2.1 Simplified Analytical Models7.2.2 Analytical Approximation - First-Order Reliability Method7.2.3 Numerical Approximation - Monte Carlo Simulation7.3 Practical Implementation7.3.1 Foundation Capacities7.3.2 Foundation Loads7.3.3 System versus Components7.3.4 Target Reliability7.4 Summary7.5 ReferencesChapter 8 - Soil-Pipe Interaction for Subsea Flowlines William O. McCarron 8.1 Introduction8.2 Design Considerations8.2.1 Lateral Buckling8.2.2 Flowline Walking8.2.3 Upheaval Buckling8.3 Analysis Methodology8.3.1 Lateral Buckling8.3.2 Flowline Walking8.3.3 Upheaval Buckling8.3.4 Modeling Scheme8.4 Illustrative Examples8.4.1 Lateral Soil-Pipe Resistance8.4.2 Lateral Buckling8.4.3 Upheaval Buckling8.4.4 Walking 8.5 Conclusions8.5 ReferencesChapter 9 - Modeling of Soil-Pipe InteractionWilliam O. McCarron9.1 Introduction9.2 Lateral Soil-Pipe Resistance9.2.1 Vertical Embedment Solution9.2.2 Lateral Breakout Resistance9.2.3 Lateral Residual Resistance9.2.4 Example Lateral Resistance Model Calibration9.3 Upheaval Soil-Pipe Resistance9.3.1 Upheaval Buckling Resistance9.3.2 Buried Lateral Resistance9.4 Conclusion9.5 ReferencesChapter 10 - Constitutive Modeling for GeomaterialsWilliam O. McCarron10.1 Introduction10.2 Critical State and Capped Plasticity Models10.2.1 Basics of Plasticity Modeling10.2.2 Geometric Representation of Stress10.2.3 Cam-Clay Model10.2.4 Capped Plasticity Model10.2.5 Single-Surface Critical State Models10.3 Traditional Strength Models10.4 Recent Developments10.5 Closing Comments10.6 ReferencesChapter 11 - Finite Element ApplicationsWilliam O. McCarron11.1 Introduction11.2 Plane Strain Bearing Capacity Evaluation11.2.1 Purely Cohesive Material11.2.2 Material with Cohesion and Friction11.3 Suction Pile Lateral Resistance11.4 Torpedo Pile Penetration11.5 Cyclic Response of Axially Loaded Piles11.5.1 Modeling of Element States of Stress11.5.2 Modeling with Continuum Model11.6 Rock Mechanics Application11.6.1 HISS/DSC Model Calibration Berea Sandstone11.7 Conclusion11.8 References Index

About the Author

William O. McCarron, Ph.D., PE, has worked as an independent consultant since 2001 when he founded ASGM Engineering. He specializes in structural mechanics and geomechanics. Prior to that, Mr. McCarron worked for Amoco Production Company for 14 years where he held several research and project engineering positions. He was responsible for delivery of the tendon, foundation and production riser components for Amoco's Gulf of Mexico Marlin tension leg platform installed in 3,234 ft of water. Mr. McCarron earned his degrees from Oklahoma State University and Purdue University.

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