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Data Center Handbook
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Table of Contents

Contributors xxi Preface xxiii Acknowledgments xxv Technical Advisory Board xxvii Chapter Organization xxix Part I Data Center Overview and Strategic Planning 1 1 Data Centers-Strategic Planning, Design, Construction, and Operations 3 Hwaiyu Geng 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Data Center Vision and Roadmap 6 1.3 Strategic Location Plan 7 1.4 Sustainable Design 8 1.5 Best Practices and Emerging Technologies 10 1.6 Operations Management and Disaster Management 10 1.7 Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery 12 1.8 Conclusion 12 References 13 Further Reading 14 2 Energy and Sustainability in Data Centers 15 William J. Kosik 2.1 Introduction 15 2.2 Flexible Facilities-Modularity in Data Centers 18 2.3 Water Use 21 2.4 Proper Operating Temperature and Humidity 21 2.5 Avoiding Common Planning Errors 23 2.6 Cooling System Concepts 26 2.7 Building Envelope and Energy Use 28 2.8 Air Management and Containment Strategies 30 2.9 Electrical System Efficiency 32 2.10 Energy Use of IT Equipment 33 2.11 Leveraging IT and Facilities 37 2.12 Determining Data Center Energy Use Effectiveness 39 2.13 Private Industry and Government Energy Efficiency Programs 42 2.14 USGBC-LEED Adaptations for Data Centers 42 2.15 Harmonizing Global Metrics for Data Center Energy Efficiency 42 2.16 Industry Consortium-Recommendations for Measuring and Reporting Overall Data Center Efficiency 42 2.17 Strategies for Operations Optimization 44 References 44 Further Reading 44 3 Hosting or Colocation Data Centers 47 Chris Crosby and Chris Curtis 3.1 Introduction 47 3.2 Hosting 47 3.3 Colocation (Wholesale) 48 3.4 Types of Data Centers 48 3.5 Scaling Data Centers 54 3.6 Selecting and Evaluating DC Hosting and Wholesale Providers 54 3.7 Build versus Buy 54 3.8 Future Trends 56 3.9 Conclusion 57 Further Reading 57 Sources for Data Center Industry News and Trends 57 4 Modular Data Centers: Design, Deployment, and Other Considerations 59 Wade Vinson, Matt Slaby, and Ian Levine 4.1 Modular Data Center Definition 59 4.2 MDC Benefits and Applications 59 4.3 Modularity Scalability Planning 61 4.4 MDC Anatomy 62 4.5 Site Preparation, Installation, Commissioning 80 4.6 How to Select an MDC Vendor 85 4.7 External Factors 86 4.8 Future Trend and Conclusion 86 Further Reading 87 5 Data Center Site Search and Selection 89 Ken Baudry 5.1 Introduction 89 5.2 Site Searches Versus Facility Searches 89 5.3 Globalization and the Speed of Light 90 5.4 The Site Selection Process 93 5.5 Industry Trends Affecting Site Selection 101 Further Reading 102 6 Data Center Financial Analysis, ROI and TCO 103 Liam Newcombe 6.1 Introduction to Financial Analysis, Return on Investment, and Total Cost of Ownership 103 6.2 Financial Measures of Cost and Return 109 6.3 Complications and Common Problems 116 6.4 A Realistic Example 126 6.5 Choosing to Build, Reinvest, Lease, or Rent 135 Further Reading 137 7 Overview of Data Centers in China 139 Zhe Liu, Jingyi Hu, Hongru Song, Yutao Yang, and Haibo Li 7.1 Introduction 139 7.2 Policies, Laws, Regulations, and Standards 141 7.3 Standards 145 7.4 Development Status of China's Data Centers 147 7.5 Energy Efficiency Status 149 7.6 Development Tendency 150 References 151 8 Overview of Data Centers in Korea 153 Minseok Kwon, Mingoo Kim, and Hanwook Bae 8.1ntroduction 153 8.2 Korean Government Organizations for Data Center 154 8.3 Codes and Standards 154 8.4 Data Center Design and Construction 155 8.5 Data Center Market 159 8.6 Conclusion 160 References 160 Part II Data Center Design and Construction 161 9 Architecture Design: Data Center Rack Floor Plan and Facility Layout Design 163 Phil Isaak 9.1 Introduction 163 9.2 Overview of Rack and Cabinet Design 163 9.3 S pace and Power Design Criteria 166 9.4 Pathways 169 9.5 Coordination with Other Systems 170 9.6 Computer Room Design 174 9.7 Modular Design 177 9.8 CFD Modeling 178 9.9 Data Center Space Planning 179 9.10 Conclusion 181 Further Reading 181 10 Mechanical Design in Data Centers 183 John Weale 10.1 Introduction 183 10.2 Key Design Criteria 183 10.3 Mechanical Design Process 186 10.4 Data Center Considerations in Selecting Key Components 203 10.5 Primary Design Options 206 10.6 Current Best Practices 211 10.7 Future Trends 214 Reference 215 Further Reading 215 11 Electrical Design in Data Centers 217 Jay S. Park and Sarah Hanna 11.1 Uptime 217 11.2 Electrical Equipment to Deploy 217 11.3 Electrical Design 217 11.4 Availability 222 11.5 Determining Success 227 Appendix 11.A 228 Further Reading 228 12 F ire Protection and Life Safety Design in Data Centers 229 Sean S. Donohue 12.1 F ire Protection Fundamentals 229 12.2 AHJs Codes and Standards 230 12.3 Local Authorities, National Codes, and Standards 230 12.4 Life Safety 231 12.5 Passive Fire Protection 233 12.6 Active Fire Protection/Suppression 234 12.7 Detection, Alarm, and Signaling 239 12.8 Fire Protection Design 242 References 243 13 Structural Design in Data Centers: Natural Disaster Resilience 245 David Bonneville and Robert Pekelnicky 13.1 Introduction 245 13.2 Building Design Considerations 246 13.3 Earthquakes 248 13.4 Hurricanes Tornadoes and Other Windstorms 251 13.5 Snow and Rain 252 13.6 Flood and Tsunami 253 13.7 Comprehensive Resiliency Strategies 254 References 255 14 Data Center Telecommunications Cabling 257 Alexander Jew 14.1 Why Use Data Center Telecommunications Cabling Standards? 257 14.2 Telecommunications Cabling Standards Organizations 259 14.3 Data Center Telecommunications Cabling Infrastructure Standards 259 14.4 Telecommunications Spaces and Requirements 262 14.5 Structured Cabling Topology 264 14.6 Cable Types and Maximum Cable Lengths 267 14.7 Cabinet and Rack Placement (Hot Aisles and Cold Aisles) 269 14.8 Cabling and Energy Efficiency 270 14.9 Cable Pathways 271 14.10 Cabinets and Racks 272 14.11 Patch Panels and Cable Management 272 14.12 Reliability Levels and Cabling 272 14.13 Conclusion and Trends 273 Further Reading 273 15 Dependability Engineering for Data Center Infrastructures 275 Malik Megdiche 15.1 Introduction 275 15.2 Dependability Theory 276 15.3 System Dysfunctional Analysis 283 15.4 Application to Data Center Dependability 297 Reference 305 Further Reading 305 16 Particulate and Gaseous Contamination in Data Centers 307 Taewon Han 16.1 Introduction 307 16.2 Standards and Guidelines 307 16.3 Airborne Contamination 309 16.4 A Conventional Solution 309 16.5 Conclusions and Future Trends 311 Acknowledgment 311 References 312 Further Reading 312 17 Computational Fluid Dynamics Applications in Data Centers 313 Mark Seymour 17.1 Introduction 313 17.2 Fundamentals of CFD 313 17.3 Applications of CFD for Data Centers 321 17.4 Modeling the Data Center 325 17.5 Potential Additional Benefits of a CFD/Virtual Facility Model 340 17.6 The Future of Virtual Facility Models 341 References 341 18 Environmental Control of Data Centers 343 Veerendra Mulay 18.1 Data Center Power Trends 343 18.2 Thermal Management of Data Centers 343 18.3 Cooling System Design and Control 346 18.4 Performance Metrics 352 References 353 19 Data Center Project Management and Commissioning 359 Lynn Brown 19.1 Introduction 359 19.2 Project Management 359 19.3 Commissioning 367 19.4 Bidding Phase Tasks 376 19.5 Acceptance Phase Tasks 378 19.6 LEED-Required Commissioning Tasks 381 19.7 Minimum Commissioning Tasks 382 19.8 Commissioning Team Members 383 19.9 Data Center Trends 386 19.10 Conclusion 387 Further Reading 387 Part III Data Center Technology 389 20 Virtualization, Cloud SDN, and SDDC in Data Centers 391 Omar Cherkaoui and Ramesh Menon 20.1 Introduction 391 20.2 Virtualization in Data Centers 392 20.3 Cloud as an Extension of the Data Center 393 20.4 Networking in Data Center 394 20.5 SDN 396 20.6 SDDC 398 20.7 Roadmap to Cloud-Enabled Data Center 398 References 400 Further Reading 400 21 Green Microprocessor and Server Design 401 Guy AlLee 21.1 Introduction 401 21.2 Microprocessor 403 21.3 Server 407 21.4 Motherboard 409 21.5 Software 413 21.6 Benchmarks 415 21.7 Conclusions 416 Further Reading 417 22 Energy Efficiency Requirements in Information Technology Equipment Design 419 Joe Prisco and Jay Dietrich 22.1 Introduction 419 22.2 Computer Servers 421 22.3 Storage Systems 425 22.4 Uninterruptable Power Systems 426 22.5 Networking Equipment 427 22.6 Future Trends in Product Energy Efficiency Requirements 427 References 428 Further Reading 428 23 Raised Floor versus Overhead Cooling in Data Centers 429 Vali Sorell 23.1 Introduction 429 23.2 History of Raised Floor versus Overhead Air Distribution 429 23.3 Air Delivery Methodology as it Relates to Containment 430 23.4 Airflow Dynamics 430 23.5 Under-floor Air Distribution 433 23.6 Overhead Air Distribution 437 23.7 Conclusion 439 References 439 Further Reading 439 24 Hot Aisle versus Cold Aisle Containment 441 Dave Moody 24.1 Executive Summary 441 24.2 Containment: The Airflow Architecture Models 441 24.3 Return Air Temperature Trends in HAC and CAC 444 24.4 Run- or Ride-Through Impact of Higher RAT 446 24.5 Single-Geometry Passive Chimney Ducts as Part of HAC 448 24.6 Psychological Impacts of Higher RAT 450 24.7 Cooling System Airflow and Fan Power 453 24.8 Redundancy and Cooling Unit Location Impact 459 24.9 Impact on Conditions for Peripheral Equipment in the Data Center Outside any of the HAC or CAC Zone(s) 461 24.10 Impact on Economizer Operation Time Periods During Cooler Outside Ambient Temperatures 462 24.11 Conclusion and Future Trends 463 References 464 Further Reading 464 25 Free Cooling Technologies in Data Centers 465 Nicholas H. Des Champs and Keith Dunnavant 25.1 Introduction 465 25.2 Using Properties of Ambient Air to Cool a Data Center 466 25.3 Economizer Thermodynamic Process and Schematic of Equipment Layout 466 25.4 Comparative Potential Energy Savings and Required Trim Mechanical Refrigeration 475 25.5 Conventional Means for Cooling Datacom Facilities 478 References 478 Further Reading 478 26 Rack-Level Cooling and Cold Plate Cooling 479 Henry Coles, Steve Greenberg, and Phil Hughes 26.1 Introduction 479 26.2 Rack-Level Cooling Types 482 26.3 Rack-Level Cooler Selection and Installation 485 26.4 Conclusion and Future Trends 486 26.5 Rack-Level Cooling Using Cold Plates 486 26.6 Conclusions and Future Trends 492 References 493 Further Reading 493 27 Uninterruptible Power Supply System 495 Chris Loeffler and Ed Spears 27.1 Introduction 495 27.2 Principle of UPS and Application 496 27.3 Considerations in Selecting UPS 504 27.4 Reliability and Redundancy 507 27.5 Alternate Energy Sources: AC and DC 512 27.6 UPS Preventive Maintenance Requirements 516 27.7 UPS Management and Control 519 27.8 Conclusion and Trends 520 Reference 520 Further Reading 520 28 Using Direct Current Network in Data Centers 523 Sofia Bergqvist 28.1 Introduction 523 28.2 Edison's Revenge 523 28.3 Data Center Power Design 525 28.4 Why Use the DC System in Data Centers 526 28.5 Examples of DC Data Centers in Operation 531 28.6 Future Trends and Conclusions 532 Acknowledgments 532 References 532 Further Reading 532 29 Rack PDU for Green Data Centers 533 Ching-I Hsu 29.1 Introduction 533 29.2 Fundamentals and Principles 534 29.3 Elements of the System 540 29.4 Considerations for Planning and Selecting Rack PDUs 548 29.5 Future Trends for Rack PDUs 555 Further Reading 557 30 Renewable and Clean Energy for Data Centers 559 William Kao 30.1 Introduction 559 30.2 Renewable Energy Basics 560 30.3 Renewable Energy Types 560 30.4 Alternative Energy: Fuel Cell 569 30.5 Case studies 573 30.6 Summary and Future Trends 575 References 576 Further Reading 576 31 Smart Grid-Responsive Data Centers 577 Girish Ghatikar, Mary Ann Piette, and Venkata Vish Ganti 31.1 Introduction and Context for Grid-Responsive Data Centers 577 31.2 S mart Grid and DR Applications in the United States 579 31.3 Site Infrastructure Control System Technologies 581 31.4 IT Infrastructure Virtualization Technologies 582 31.5 DR Opportunities, Challenges, and Automation Considerations 582 31.6 Data Centers with DR Provisions 583 31.7 AutoDR Using Open Standards 585 31.8 Grid-Distributed Data Centers and Networks 586 31.9 Summary of DR Strategies 586 31.10 Challenges to Grid-Responsive Data Centers 587 31.11 U.S. Policies Governing Smart Grid Emerging Technologies 588 31.12 The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 588 31.13 State Policies for Smart Grid Advancement 589 31.14 Conclusions and Next Steps 589 Acknowledgments 590 References 591 Further Reading 592 Part IV Data Center Operations and Management 593 32 Data Center Benchmark Metrics 595 William J. Kosik 32.1 Introduction 595 32.2 Origin and Application of PUE as a Metric 595 32.3 Metrics Used in Data Center Assessments 597 32.4 Green Grid's xUE Metrics 597 32.5 Rack Cooling Index and Return Temperature Index 598 32.6 Additional Industry Metrics 598 32.7 European Commission Code of Conduct 598 32.8 International Telecommunication Union 599 32.9 Conclusion 599 Further Reading 599 33 Data Center Infrastructure Management 601 Mark Harris 33.1 What is Data Center Infrastructure Management? 601 33.2 Triggers for DCIM Acquisition and Deployment 604 33.3 What are the Modules of a DCIM Solution? 606 33.4 The DCIM System Itself. What to Expect and Plan for 611 33.5 Critical Success Factors when Implementing a DCIM System 614 33.6 Future Trends in DCIM 616 33.7 Conclusion 617 Reference 617 Further Reading 617 34 Computerized Maintenance Management System in Data Centers 619 Peter Sacco 34.1 Introduction 619 34.2 CMMS Basics 620 34.3 CMMS Modules 620 34.4 Considerations in Selecting CMMS 632 34.5 Conclusion 637 34.6 Trends 637 Further Reading 638 Part V Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity 639 35 Data Center Disaster Recovery and High Availability 641 Chris Gabriel 35.1 Introduction 641 35.2 The Evolution of the Data Center and Data Center Risk 642 35.3 Physical Data Center Design and Redundancy: Tiers and N+ What? 649 35.4 Virtualization Brings Out-of-the-Box DR Survivability 652 35.5 DR and Cloud 656 References 657 Further Reading 657 36 Lessons Learned from Natural Disasters and Preparedness of Data Centers 659 Hwaiyu Geng and Masatoshi Kajimoto 36.1 Introduction 659 36.2 Design for Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery 659 36.3 Natural Disasters 660 36.4 The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake 660 36.5 The 2012 Eastern U.S. Coast Superstorm Sandy 663 36.6 Conclusions 666 References 666 Further Reading 666 Index 669

About the Author

Hwaiyu Geng, P.E., is a consultant with Amica Association, promoting green planning, design, and construction projects. He has had over 40 years of manufacturing and management experience, working with Westinghouse, Applied Materials, HP, and Intel on multi-million high-tech projects. He has written and presented numerous technical papers at DatacenterDynamics, ASME and IIE conferences, and is also the editor/author of Manufacturing Engineering Handbook (McGraw Hill, 2004), Semiconductor Manufacturing Handbook (McGraw Hill, 2005), and Data Center Handbook (Wiley, 2014). He is a patent holder.

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