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The Data Access Handbook
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The Data Access Handbook Achieving Optimal Database Application Performance and Scalability John Goodson * Robert A. Steward Drive breakthrough database application performance by optimizing middleware and connectivity Performance and scalability are more critical than ever in today's enterprise database applications, and traditional database tuning isn't nearly enough to solve the performance problems you are likely to see in those applications. Nowadays, 75-95% of the time it takes to process a data request is typically spent in the database middleware. Today's worst performance and scalability problems are generally caused by issues with networking, database drivers, the broader software/hardware environment, and inefficient coding of data requests. In The Data Access Handbook, two of the world's leading experts on database access systematically address these issues, showing how to achieve remarkable improvements in performance of real-world database applications. Drawing on their unsurpassed experience with every leading database system and database connectivity API, John Goodson and Rob Steward reveal the powerful ways middleware affects application performance and guide developers with designing and writing API code that will deliver superior performance in each leading environment. In addition to covering essential concepts and techniques that apply across database systems and APIs, they present many API examples for ODBC, JDBC, and ADO.NET as well as database system examples for DB2, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, Oracle, and Sybase. Coverage includes * Clearly understanding how each component of database middleware can impact performance and scalability * Writing database applications to reduce network traffic, limit disk I/O, optimize application-to-driver interaction, and simplify queries-including examples for ODBC, JDBC, and ADO.N ET * Managing connections, transactions, and SQL statement execution more efficiently * Making the most of connection and statement pooling * Writing good benchmarks to predict your application's performance * Systematically resolving performance problems-including eight start-to-finish case-study examples If you're a software architect, system designer, or database application developer, The Data Access Handbook will be your most indispensable database application performance resource. It's the one book that focuses on the areas where you can achieve the greatest improvements-whether you're designing new database applications or troubleshooting existing ones. John Goodson is vice president and general manager of the DataDirect division of Progress Software, a leader in data connectivity and mainframe integration. For 20 years, he has worked with Sun, Microsoft, and others to develop database connectivity standards such as J2EE, JDBC, ODBC, and ADO. He served on the ANSI H2 committee that built the SQL standard and now participates in the JDBC Expert Group and Java Rowsets standards committees. Rob Steward, vice president of R&D at the DataDirect division of Progress Software, is responsible for the development, strategy, and oversight of the company's data connectivity products. Rob has spent the past 15 years developing high-performing database driver and data providers, including ODBC, JDBC, and ADO.NET. Both authors have spoken on database application performance at many industry events. Visit www.dataaccesshandbook.com to get the code examples presented in this book and other supplemental information for DB2, MicrosoftSQL Server, MySQL, Oracle, and Sybase.
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Table of Contents

PrefaceCHAPTER 1 Performance Isn't What It Used To BeWhere Are We Today? The Network The Database Driver The Environment Your Database ApplicationOur Goal for This BookCHAPTER 2 Designing for Performance: What's Your Strategy?Your Applications Database Connections Transaction Management SQL Statements Data Retrieval Extended Security Static SQL Versus Dynamic SQL The Network The Database Driver Know Your Database System Using Object-Relational Mapping Tools Summary CHAPTER 3 Database Middleware: Why It's ImportantWhat Is Database Middleware? How Database Middleware Affects Application Performance Database Drivers What Does a Database Driver Do? Database Driver Architecture Runtime Performance Tuning Options Configuring Database Drivers/Data Providers Summary CHAPTER 4 The Environment: Tuning for PerformanceRuntime Environment (Java and .NET) JVM .NET CLR Operating System Network Database Protocol Packets Network Packets Configuring Packet Size Analyzing the Network Path Reducing Network Hops and Contention Avoiding Network Packet Fragmentation Increasing Network Bandwidth Hardware Memory Disk CPU (Processor) Network Adapter Virtualization Summary CHAPTER 5 ODBC Applications: Writing Good CodeManaging Connections Connecting Efficiently Using Connection Pooling Establishing Connections One at a Time Using One Connection for Multiple Statements Obtaining Database and Driver Information Efficiently Managing Transactions Managing Commits in Transactions Choosing the Right Transaction Model Executing SQL Statements Using Stored Procedures Using Statements Versus Prepared Statements Using Arrays of Parameters Using the Cursor Library Retrieving Data Retrieving Long Data Limiting the Amount of Data Retrieved Using Bound Columns Using SQLExtendedFetch Instead of SQLFetch Determining the Number of Rows in a Result Set Choosing the Right Data Type Updating Data Using SQLSpecialColumns to Optimize Updates and Deletes Using Catalog Functions Minimizing the Use of Catalog Functions Avoiding Search Patterns Using a Dummy Query to Determine Table Characteristics Summary CHAPTER 6 JDBC Applications: Writing Good CodeManaging Connections Connecting Efficiently Using Connection Pooling Establishing Connections One at a Time Using One Connection for Multiple Statements Disconnecting Efficiently Obtaining Database and Driver Information Efficiently Managing Transactions Managing Commits in Transactions Choosing the Right Transaction Model Executing SQL Statements Using Stored Procedures Using Statements Versus Prepared Statements Using Batches Versus Prepared Statements Using getXXX Methods to Fetch Data from a Result Set Retrieving Auto-Generated Keys Retrieving Data Retrieving Long Data Limiting the Amount of Data Retrieved Determining the Number of Rows in a Result Set Choosing the Right Data Type Choosing the Right Cursor Updating Data Using Positioned Updates, Inserts, and Deletes (updateXXX Methods) Using getBestRowIdentifier() to Optimize Updates and Deletes Using Database Metadata Methods Minimizing the Use of Database Metadata Methods Avoiding Search Patterns Using a Dummy Query to Determine Table Characteristics Summary CHAPTER 7 .NET Applications: Writing Good CodeManaging Connections Connecting Efficiently Using Connection Pooling Establishing Connections One at a Time Disconnecting Efficiently Obtaining Database and Data Provider Information Efficiently Managing Transactions Managing Commits in Transactions Choosing the Right Transaction Model Executing SQL Statements Executing SQL Statements that Retrieve Little or No Data Using the Command.Prepare Method Using Arrays of Parameters/Batches Versus Prepared Statements Using Bulk Load Using Pure Managed Providers Selecting .NET Objects and Methods Avoiding the CommandBuilder Object Choosing Between a DataReader and DataSet Object Using GetXXX Methods to Fetch Data from a DataReader Retrieving Data Retrieving Long Data Limiting the Amount of Data Retrieved Choosing the Right Data Type Updating Data Summary CHAPTER 8 Connection Pooling and Statement Pooling Connection Pool Model for JDBC Configuring Connection Pools Guidelines Connection Pool Model for ODBC Connection Pooling as Defined in the ODBC Specification Configuring Connection Pools Guidelines Connection Pool Model for ADO.NET Configuring Connection Pools Guidelines Using Reauthentication with Connection Pooling Configuring Connection Pooling with Reauthentication in a JDBC EnvironmentUsing Statement Pooling Using Statement Pooling with Connection Pooling Guidelines Summary: The Big Picture CHAPTER 9 Developing Good Benchmarks Developing the Benchmark Define Benchmark Goals Reproduce the Production Environment Isolate the Test Environment Reproduce the Workload Measure the Right Tasks Measure over a Sufficient Duration of Time Prepare the Database Make Changes One at a Time Assess Other Factors Benchmark Example Summary CHAPTER 10 Troubleshooting Performance Issues Where to Start Changes in Your Database Application Deployment The Database Application The Database Driver Runtime Performance Tuning Options Architecture The Environment Runtime Environment (Java and .NET) Operating System Network Hardware Case Studies Case Study 1 Case Study 2 Case Study 3 Case Study 4 Case Study 5 Case Study 6 Case Study 7 Case Study 8 Summary CHAPTER 11 Data Access in Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) EnvironmentsWhat Is Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)? Data Access Guidelines for SOA Environments Involve Data Experts in Addition to SOA Experts Decouple Data Access from Business Logic Design and Tune for Performance Consider Data Integration Summary Glossary 0137143931 TOC 2/19/2009

About the Author

John Goodson: As the executive leader of DataDirect Technologies, John is responsible for daily operations, business development, product direction, and long-term corporate strategy. John was a principal engineer at Data General for seven years, working on their relational database product, DG/SQL. Since joining DataDirect Technologies in 1992, he has held positions of increasing responsibility in research and development, technical support, and marketing. John is a well-known and respected industry luminary and data connectivity expert. For more than 15 years, he has worked closely with Sun Microsystems and Microsoft on the development and evolution of database connectivity standards including J2EE, JDBC, .NET, ODBC, and ADO. John has been involved with the ANSI NCITS H2 Committee, which is responsible for building the SQL standard, and the X/Open (Open Group) SQL Access Group, which is responsible for building call-level interfaces into relational databases. He is actively involved in Java standards committees, including the JDBC Expert Group. In addition, John has published numerous articles and spoken publicly on topics related to data management. John is also a patent holder in the area of distributed transactions for Microsoft SQL Server Java middleware. John holds a Bachelor of Science in computer science from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Blacksburg,Virginia. Rob Steward: As vice president of research and development for DataDirect Technologies, Rob is responsible for the development, strategy, and oversight of the company's data connectivity products, including the Shadow mainframe integration suite client software and the industry-leading DataDirect Connect family of database drivers and data providers: Connect for ODBC, Connect for JDBC, and Connect for ADO.NET. Additional product development responsibilities include DataDirect Sequelink and DataDirect XQuery, as well as the management of DataDirect's Custom Engineering Development group. Rob has spent more than 15 years developing database access middleware, including .NET data providers, ODBC drivers, JDBC drivers, and OLE DB data providers. He has held a number of management and technical positions at DataDirect Technologies and serves on various standards committees. Earlier in his career, he worked as lead software engineer at Marconi Commerce Systems Inc. Rob holds a Bachelor of Science in computer science from North Carolina State University, Raleigh.

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