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Cyanide in Water and Soil

The presence of cyanide is a significant issue in industrial and municipal wastewater treatment and management, in remediation of former manufactured gas plant sites and aluminum production waste disposal sites, in treatment and management of residuals from hydrometallurgical gold mining, and in other industrial operations in which cyanide-bearing wastes were produced. The complexity of the chemistry and toxicology of cyanide and the risk it poses in different environmental contexts make its management and remediation extremely challenging. Cyanide in Water and Soil is the first book to present the state-of-the-art in managing cyanide across a wide range of industrial and environmental contexts. The book brings together current knowledge and information about cyanide release to and behavior in the environment, and explores how to control or remediate these releases. No other broad-based examination of this topic exists. Exploring the anthropogenic and natural sources of cyanide in the environment, the authors address the full range of issues pertaining to cyanide fate, transport, treatment, and toxicity in water and soil as well as approaches currently used in risk assessment and management. They have developed a careful balance of depth and scope of coverage, providing current references that help readers learn more about topics of particular interest. An array of technologies is available for the treatment of cyanide in surface water and groundwater, wastewaters, and contaminated soils and sludges. These technologies span the gamut of biological, chemical, electrolytic, physical, and thermal treatment processing. Presenting examples of applications of the technologies employed most commonly in municipal and industrial settings, the book is a useful reference tool for engineers, scientists, practitioners, and researchers in academia, industrial organizations, government, and engineering and science consulting firms.
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Table of Contents

Introduction Cyanide in History Cyanide Chemical Structure Cyanide and the Origin of Life Ubiquity of Cyanide Compounds in Nature Cyanide in Industry Cyanide Releases to Water and Soil Cyanide: Chemistry, Risk and Management Cyanide Regulations Cyanide Treatment Technology Summary and Conclusions References PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL FORMS OF CYANIDE Gaseous Forms of Cyanide Aqueous Forms of Cyanide Solid Forms of Cyanide Summary and Conclusions References Natural Sources of Cyanide Cyanide in Vascular Plants Cyanide in Microorganisms Cyanide in Animals Cyanide in Forest Fires Summary and Conclusions References Manufacture and the Use of Cyanide Production of Cyanide Compounds Incidental Industrial Production of Cyanide Summary and Conclusions References PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND REACTIVITY OF CYANIDE IN WATER AND SOIL Free Cyanide Metal Cyanides: Aqueous Species Metal-Cyanides: Solid Phase Compounds Cyanate Thiocyanate Organocyanides Summary and Conclusions References Biological Transformation of Cyanide in Water and Soil Microbial Degradation Fungal Degradation Pathways for Fungal Degradation of Cyanogenic Compounds Bacterial Assimilation Fungal Assimilation Botanical Transformation Processes Environmental Impacts of Cyanide Assimilation Summary and Conclusions References ANALYSIS OF CYANIDE IN WATER Interferences and Pretreatments Total Cyanide Measurement Techniques Weak Metal-Cyanide Complexes Metal Cyanide Complex Analysis by Liquid Chormatography Free Cyanide Analysis Thiocyanate and Cyanate Measurement Techniques Cyanogen Halide Analysis Organocyanide Measurement Techniques Comparative Method Performance Quality Control Criteria for Measurement of Cyanide in Water Measuring Cyanides - A Regulatory Dilemma Summary and Conclusions References Analysis of Cyanide in Solids and Semi-Solids Direct Acid Distillation Acid Solution Extraction Neutral Solution Extraction Alkaline Solution Extraction Effect of Extraction Solution pH Effect of Liquid-Solid Ratio Effect of Extraction Time Extraction of Plant and Animal Tissue, and other Semi-Solid Materials Quality Control and Method Performance Evaluation Summary and Conclusions References FATE AND TRANSPORT OF ANTHROPOGENIC CYANIDE IN SURFACE WATER Synoptic Review of Cyanide Speciation and Toxicity Primary Cyanide Fate-Determining Environmental Processes Prediction and Assessment of Exposure to Cyanide Summary and Conclusions References FATE AND TRANSPORT OF ANTHROPOGENIC CYANIDE IN SOIL AND GROUNDWATER Distribution and Speciation of Cyanide at Industrial Sites Impact of Site Geochemistry on Speciation and Distribution of Cyanide Important Fate Processes for Cyanide Transport of Cyanide in Soil and Groundwater at Contaminated Sites Summary and Conclusions References ANTHROPOGENIC CYANIDE IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT Wastewater Discharges to Coastal Waters Use of Cyanide for Capturing Live Reef Fish Summary and Conclusions References Cyanide Cycle in Nature Global Output of Cyanide Physical, Chemical and Biological Processes that Influence Environmental Fate of Cyanide Why Doesn't Cyanide Build-up in Nature? Cycling of Anthropogenic Cyanide in Nature Combined Natural and Anthropogenic Cyanide Cycle Summary and Conclusions References Human Toxicology of Cyanide Exposure Sites of Action Symptoms and Signs Caused by Cyanide Generation and Metabolism of Cyanide in Body Tissues Mechanisms of Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide Antidotes Summary and Conclusions References AQUATIC TOXICITY OF CYANIDE Mechanisms of Toxicity Cyanide Bioavailability Toxicity to Freshwater Biota Toxicity to Marine Biota Regulatory Criteria for Protection of Aquatic Life Summary and Conclusions References TOXICITY OF CYANIDE TO AQUATIC-DEPENDENT WILDLIFE Distribution of Cyanide in the Environment Exposure Pathways Mechanisms of Toxicity Literature Review Methods and Scope Data Analysis Discussion Bioaccumulation of Cyanide Toxicity Thresholds for Cyanide Summary and Conclusions References HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CYANIDE COMPOUNDS IN WATER AND SOIL Environmental Concentrations and Exposure Pathways Exposure Pathways Toxicity Evaluation Risk Characteristics Recommendations Summary and Conclusions References ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF CYANIDE IN WATER AND SOIL Problem Formulation Ecological Effects Assessment Ecological Exposure Assessment Risk Characterization Summary and Conclusions References REGULATION OF CYANIDE IN WATER AND SOIL U.S. Regulations and Guidelines for Cyanide in Water Regulatory Standards, Guidelines, and Criteria for Solid Matrices - Soil, Sediment and Process Residuals International Regulatory Standards for Cyanide in Water and Soil Technical/Regulatory Issues Summary and Conclusions References Cyanide Treatment Technology: Overview Technology Selection Summary and Conclusions References AMBIENT TEMPERATURE OXIDATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF CYANIDE Alkaline Chlorination Technologies Oxidation Technologies with Ozone and Hydrogen Peroxide Photocatalytic Oxidation Technology Inco'S Air/SO2 Process Additional Technologies Summary and Conclusions References SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF CYANIDE Adsorption Technologies Precipitation Technologies Air Stripping Summary and Conclusions References THERMAL AND HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF CYANIDE High Temperature Alkaline Hydrolysis High Temperature Alkaline Chlorination Incineration/Thermal Treatment Electrolytic Decomposition or Oxidation Polysulfide Process Wet Air Oxidation Other Thermal Technologies Thermal Technology Overview Summary and Conclusions References MICROBIOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF CYANIDE Process Fundamentals Wastewater Treatment Process Configurations Full-Scale Application of Biological Treatment for Cyanide in Gold Mining Biological Treatment of Solid Wastes Containing Cyanide Summary and Conclusions References Cyanide Phytoremediation Phytoremediation: An Emerging Biotechnology Cyanide Contamination in the Environment Feasibility of Cyanide Phytoremediation Modeling Cyanide Uptake and Fate in Plants Cyanide Phytoremediation: Limitations and Challenges Possible Scenarios for Cyanide Phytoremediation Regulatory Concerns Summary and Conclusions References Management of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewaters Sources of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Influent Fate of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Generation of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Management Strategies for Low-Level Cyanide in Discharges from POTWs Summary and Conclusions References MANAGEMENT OF CYANIDE IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESS WASTEWATERS Management Strategy Examples of Cyanide Management in Industrial Wastewaters Summary and Conclusions References CYANIDE MANAGEMENT IN GROUNDWATER AND SOIL Groundwater Management Management of Cyanide-Impacted Soil and/or Residuals Case Studies Summary and Conclusions References

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