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Cyanide in Water and Soil
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Table of Contents

Introduction
Cyanide in History
Cyanide Chemical Structure
Cyanide and the Origin of Life
Ubiquity of Cyanide Compounds in Nature
Cyanide in Industry
Cyanide Releases to Water and Soil
Cyanide: Chemistry, Risk and Management
Cyanide Regulations
Cyanide Treatment Technology
Summary and Conclusions
References
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL FORMS OF CYANIDE
Gaseous Forms of Cyanide
Aqueous Forms of Cyanide
Solid Forms of Cyanide
Summary and Conclusions
References Natural Sources of Cyanide
Cyanide in Vascular Plants
Cyanide in Microorganisms
Cyanide in Animals
Cyanide in Forest Fires
Summary and Conclusions
References Manufacture and the Use of Cyanide
Production of Cyanide Compounds
Incidental Industrial Production of Cyanide
Summary and Conclusions
References
PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND REACTIVITY OF CYANIDE IN WATER AND SOIL
Free Cyanide
Metal Cyanides: Aqueous Species
Metal-Cyanides: Solid Phase Compounds
Cyanate
Thiocyanate
Organocyanides
Summary and Conclusions
References Biological Transformation of Cyanide in Water and Soil
Microbial Degradation
Fungal Degradation
Pathways for Fungal Degradation of Cyanogenic Compounds
Bacterial Assimilation
Fungal Assimilation
Botanical Transformation Processes
Environmental Impacts of Cyanide Assimilation
Summary and Conclusions
References
ANALYSIS OF CYANIDE IN WATER
Interferences and Pretreatments
Total Cyanide Measurement Techniques
Weak Metal-Cyanide Complexes
Metal Cyanide Complex Analysis by Liquid Chormatography
Free Cyanide Analysis
Thiocyanate and Cyanate Measurement Techniques
Cyanogen Halide Analysis
Organocyanide Measurement Techniques
Comparative Method Performance
Quality Control Criteria for Measurement of Cyanide in Water
Measuring Cyanides - A Regulatory Dilemma
Summary and Conclusions
References Analysis of Cyanide in Solids and Semi-Solids
Direct Acid Distillation
Acid Solution Extraction
Neutral Solution Extraction
Alkaline Solution Extraction
Effect of Extraction Solution pH
Effect of Liquid-Solid Ratio
Effect of Extraction Time
Extraction of Plant and Animal Tissue, and other Semi-Solid Materials
Quality Control and Method Performance Evaluation
Summary and Conclusions
References
FATE AND TRANSPORT OF ANTHROPOGENIC CYANIDE IN SURFACE WATER
Synoptic Review of Cyanide Speciation and Toxicity
Primary Cyanide Fate-Determining Environmental Processes
Prediction and Assessment of Exposure to Cyanide
Summary and Conclusions
References
FATE AND TRANSPORT OF ANTHROPOGENIC CYANIDE IN SOIL AND GROUNDWATER
Distribution and Speciation of Cyanide at Industrial Sites
Impact of Site Geochemistry on Speciation and Distribution of Cyanide
Important Fate Processes for Cyanide
Transport of Cyanide in Soil and Groundwater at Contaminated Sites
Summary and Conclusions
References
ANTHROPOGENIC CYANIDE IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
Wastewater Discharges to Coastal Waters
Use of Cyanide for Capturing Live Reef Fish
Summary and Conclusions
References
Cyanide Cycle in Nature
Global Output of Cyanide
Physical, Chemical and Biological Processes that Influence Environmental Fate of Cyanide
Why Doesn't Cyanide Build-up in Nature?
Cycling of Anthropogenic Cyanide in Nature
Combined Natural and Anthropogenic Cyanide Cycle
Summary and Conclusions
References
Human Toxicology of Cyanide
Exposure
Sites of Action
Symptoms and Signs Caused by Cyanide
Generation and Metabolism of Cyanide in Body Tissues
Mechanisms of Cyanide Toxicity
Cyanide Antidotes
Summary and Conclusions
References AQUATIC TOXICITY OF CYANIDE
Mechanisms of Toxicity
Cyanide Bioavailability
Toxicity to Freshwater Biota
Toxicity to Marine Biota
Regulatory Criteria for Protection of Aquatic Life
Summary and Conclusions
References
TOXICITY OF CYANIDE TO AQUATIC-DEPENDENT WILDLIFE
Distribution of Cyanide in the Environment
Exposure Pathways
Mechanisms of Toxicity
Literature Review Methods and Scope
Data Analysis
Discussion
Bioaccumulation of Cyanide
Toxicity Thresholds for Cyanide
Summary and Conclusions
References
HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CYANIDE COMPOUNDS IN WATER AND SOIL
Environmental Concentrations and Exposure Pathways
Exposure Pathways
Toxicity Evaluation
Risk Characteristics
Recommendations
Summary and Conclusions
References ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF CYANIDE IN WATER AND SOIL
Problem Formulation
Ecological Effects Assessment
Ecological Exposure Assessment
Risk Characterization
Summary and Conclusions
References REGULATION OF CYANIDE IN WATER AND SOIL
U.S. Regulations and Guidelines for Cyanide in Water
Regulatory Standards, Guidelines, and Criteria for Solid Matrices - Soil, Sediment and Process Residuals
International Regulatory Standards for Cyanide in Water and Soil
Technical/Regulatory Issues
Summary and Conclusions
References Cyanide Treatment Technology: Overview
Technology Selection
Summary and Conclusions
References
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE OXIDATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF CYANIDE
Alkaline Chlorination Technologies
Oxidation Technologies with Ozone and Hydrogen Peroxide
Photocatalytic Oxidation Technology
Inco'S Air/SO2 Process
Additional Technologies
Summary and Conclusions
References SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF CYANIDE
Adsorption Technologies
Precipitation Technologies
Air Stripping
Summary and Conclusions
References
THERMAL AND HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF CYANIDE
High Temperature Alkaline Hydrolysis
High Temperature Alkaline Chlorination
Incineration/Thermal Treatment
Electrolytic Decomposition or Oxidation
Polysulfide Process
Wet Air Oxidation
Other Thermal Technologies
Thermal Technology Overview
Summary and Conclusions
References MICROBIOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF CYANIDE
Process Fundamentals
Wastewater Treatment Process Configurations
Full-Scale Application of Biological Treatment for Cyanide in Gold Mining
Biological Treatment of Solid Wastes Containing Cyanide
Summary and Conclusions
References
Cyanide Phytoremediation
Phytoremediation: An Emerging Biotechnology
Cyanide Contamination in the Environment
Feasibility of Cyanide Phytoremediation
Modeling Cyanide Uptake and Fate in Plants
Cyanide Phytoremediation: Limitations and Challenges
Possible Scenarios for Cyanide Phytoremediation
Regulatory Concerns
Summary and Conclusions
References Management of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewaters
Sources of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Influent
Fate of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewater Treatment
Generation of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewater Treatment
Management Strategies for Low-Level Cyanide in Discharges from POTWs
Summary and Conclusions
References MANAGEMENT OF CYANIDE IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESS WASTEWATERS
Management Strategy
Examples of Cyanide Management in Industrial Wastewaters
Summary and Conclusions
References
CYANIDE MANAGEMENT IN GROUNDWATER AND SOIL
Groundwater Management
Management of Cyanide-Impacted Soil and/or Residuals
Case Studies
Summary and Conclusions
References

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