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I. Tools of Thinking and Writing 1. Thinking Through Writing Thinking and Writing in College The Thinking-Writing Model The Writing Situation Colin Powell, from My American Journey The Writing Process Natalie Goldberg, from Writing Is Not a McDonald's Hamburger Rachel Carson, "The Marginal World" Keeping a Journal or Notebook 2. Reading Actively, Reading Critically Reading in College Reading Actively Reading Critically Practicing Active and Critical Reading: One Student's Approach Sonja Tanner, "On Plato's Cave" Julia Alvarez, "Grounds for Fiction" Making Meaning 3. Thinking Critically, Writing Thoughtfully From Insight to Writing to Informed Beliefs (and Back Again) Thinking Actively and Writing Thinking Independently Supporting Diverse Perspectives with Reasons and Evidence Annie Dillard, from An American Childhood Steven Pinker, from The Blank Slate Anne Fadiman, "Under Water" Writing Project: An Experience That Affected a Belief Student Writing: Hiromi Ishii's Writing Process Hiromi S. Ishii, "A Changed Belief: Using Logic in Study" 4. Thinking Creatively About Writing Creative Thinking for Expository Writing Living Creatively Alan Lightman, "Spellbound by the Eternal Riddle, Scientists Revel in Their Captivity" Becoming More Creative: Understand and Trust the Process Where Do Ideas Come From? Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Experience" Writing Project: Imagining Your Life Lived More Creatively Student Writing: Jessie Lange's Writing Process: Free Writing Jessie Lange, "Discovering Creativity by Not Looking For It" Student Writing: Stephanie H. Moses' Writing Process: Brainstorming Stephanie H. Moses, "The Voice" 5. Making Decisions and Drafting Decisions While Drafting Decisions in Your Life Frederick Douglass, from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave Sara Corbett, "The Lost Boys" Writing Project: Analyzing a Decision to be Made Student Writing: Wendy Agudo's Writing Process Wendy Agudo, "Freedom" Student Writing: Cynthia Brown's Writing Process Cynthia Brown, "Freedom and the Constraint of Time" 6. Revising Thoughtfully, Using Language Ethically Recognizing Effective Use of Language Malcolm X, with Alex Haley, from The Autobiography of Malcolm X Making Decisions when Revising Drafts Donald M. Murray, "The Maker's Eye: Revising Your Own Manuscripts" Edite Cunha, "Talking in the New Land" Using Language Ethically Martin Luther King, Jr., "I Have a Dream" Using Language to Influence George Orwell, "Politics and the English Language" Writing Project: The Impact of Language on Our Lives Student Writing: Jessie Lange's Writing Process Jessie Lange, "The Power of Language" II. Thinking and Writing to Shape Our World 7. Exploring Perceptions: Writing to Describe and Narrate Thinking Critically About Perceptions Writing Thoughtfully About Perceptions Lowe's Home Improvement Warehouse, "Dividing a Room" Scott Russell Sanders, "The Inheritance of Tools" Chronological Relationships Atul Gawande, "The Learning Curve" Writing Project: A Narrative Showing the Effect of a Perception Student Writing: Joshua Chaffee's Writing Process Joshua Chaffee, "We're All at Ground Zero" Student Writing: Maria Muniz's Writing Process Maria Muniz, "Back, But Not Home" 8. Exploring Concepts: Writing to Classify and Define What Are Concepts? Forming Concepts Applying Concepts A Casebook on Gender and Sexuality Michael Norman, "Standing His Ground" Theodore Roethke, "My Papa's Waltz" Louise Erdrich, "The Names of Women" Richard Cohen, "Men and Their Hidden Feelings" Jamaica Kincaid, "Girl" Carol Tavris, "How Friendship Was 'Feminized'" Using Concepts to Classify Defining Concepts Frederick J. Streng, Charles L. Lloyd, and Jay T. Allen, "What Is Religion?" David K. Shipler, "A Poor Cousin of the Middle Class" Writing Thoughtfully to Define Concepts Writing Project: Defining an Important Concept Student Writing: Nawang Doma Sherpa's Writing Process Nawang Doma Sherpa, "Freedom for Enlightenment" Student Writing: Vicki Diaz, "Workfare: Moral or Immoral?" 9. Exploring Perspectives and Relationships: Writing to Compare and Evaluate Perceptions and Perspectives Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain), "Two Ways of Viewing the River" Obtaining More Accurate Perceptions: Adjusting the Lenses Benjamin Franklin, "Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America" Zitkala-Sa (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin), "The School Days of an Indian Girl" Writing Thoughtfully About Perspectives Writing Project: Comparing Perspectives on an Issue or Event Student Writing: Jesse Chen's Writing Process Jesse Chen, "Opposing Stories" 10. Exploring Cause and Effect: Writing to Speculate Kinds of Causal Relationships Ways of Testing Causes Identifying Causal Fallacies Detecting Causal Claims A Casebook on Environmental Issues Bill McKibben, "Worried? Us?" Wendell Berry, "Back to the Land" Writing Thoughtfully About Causal Relationships Writing Project: Exploring Some Causes of a Recent Event Student Writing: Ly Truc Hoang's Writing Process Ly Truc Hoang, "Crows at the Mall" III. Thinking and Writing to Explore Issues and Take Positions 11. Believing and Knowing: Writing to Analyze Ways of Forming Beliefs L. Christopher Awalt, "Brother, Don't Spare a Dime" Jonathan Kozol, "The Allesandros" Evaluating Sources and Information Believing and Knowing Alan Lightman, "Is the Earth Round or Flat?" Cynthia Crossen, "False Truth and the Future of the World" Ways of Presenting Beliefs Stephen Jay Gould, "Evolution as Fact and Theory" Presenting Beliefs In Your Writing Writing Project: Analyzing Influences on Your Beliefs About a Social or Academic Issue Student Writing: Jessie Lange's Writing Process Jessie Lange, "Dealing with Sex Offenders" 12. Solving Problems: Writing to Propose Solutions Problems in Personal and Civic Life Basics of the Problem-Solving Method The Problem-Solving Method in Detail Solving Social Problems Richard Morin and Claudia Deane, from Public Backs Uniform U.S. Voting Rules David Shenk, "Young Hate" Nancy Gibbs, "When Is It Rape?" Taking a Problem-Solving Approach to Writing Writing Project: Proposing a Solution to a Problem Student Writing: Joshua Bartlett's Writing Process Joshua Bartlett, "Critical Thinking About Uncritical Drinking" 13. Constructing Arguments: Writing to Persuade Principles of Argument James Montgomery Flagg, "I Want You for the U.S. Army" U.S. Army, www.goarmy.com Recognizing Arguments Gore Vidal, "Drugs" A. M. Rosenthal, "The Case for Slavery" Arguments as Inferences Evaluating Arguments David Gonzalez, "In No Hurry for Next Leg of the Journey" John L. Miller, "Hospice Care or Assisted Suicide: A False Dichotomy" Forms of Argument More Fallacies: Forms of False Reasoning Elizabeth Cady Stanton, "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions" Deductive and Inductive Reasoning in Writing Principles for Writing Responsible Arguments Writing Project: Arguing a Position on a Significant Issue Student Writing: Josephine Cimino's Writing Process Josephine R. Cimino, "Cellular Phones in Public Schools" 14. Thinking About Research: Writing About Investigations Rewards of Research Starting with Questions Searching for Information Using Information Using Information Ethically and Understanding Plagiarism Taking Notes Preparing an Annotated Bibliography Integrating Source Material: Being a Good Host The Logic Behind Documentation Formats Working Thoughtfully on Research Projects Writing Project: A Research Paper Annotated Student Research Paper with Outline and Drafts Student Writing: Reuben Smith, "Addressing the Issue of Violence by Young People" Appendix: MLA and APA Documentation Styles