Preface xix About the Authors xxii Section One The Multiple Dimensions of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy 1 Part I The Affective and Conceptual Dimensions of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy 3 Chapter 1 Obstacles to Developing Cultural Competence and Cultural Humility: Understanding Resistance to Multicultural Training 5 Reactions to Reading Counseling the Culturally Diverse 6 Emotional Self?Revelations and Fears: Majority Group Members 9 Emotional Invalidation Versus Affirmation: Marginalized Group Members 11 Recognizing and Understanding Resistance to Multicultural Training 15 Cultural Competence and Emotions 21 Implications for Clinical Practice 22 Summary 23 References 24 Chapter 2 Multicultural Counseling and Therapy (MCT) 26 Culture?Universal (Etic) Versus Culture?Specific (Emic) Formulations 29 The Nature of Multicultural Counseling Competence 31 A Tripartite Framework for Understanding the Multiple Dimensions of Identity 32 Individual and Universal Biases in Psychology and Mental Health 36 The Impact of Group Identities on Counseling and Psychotherapy 37 What Is Multicultural Counseling and Therapy (MCT)? 37 What Is Cultural Competence? 38 Social Justice and Cultural Competence 41 Implications for Clinical Practice 42 Summary 43 References 44 Chapter 3 Multicultural Counseling Competence for Counselors and Therapists of Marginalized Groups 47 Interracial and Interethnic Biases 49 Impact on Interracial Counseling Relationships 49 Stereotypes Held by Socially Marginalized Group Members 50 The Who?Is?More?Oppressed Game 50 Counselors from Marginalized Groups Working with Majority and Other Marginalized Group Clients 51 The Politics of Interethnic and Interracial Bias and Discrimination 52 The Historical and Political Relationships Between Groups of Color 54 Differences Between Racial/Ethnic Groups 56 Counselors of Color and Dyadic Combinations 58 Implications for Clinical Practice 66 Summary 67 References 68 Part II The Impact and Social Justice Implications of Counseling and Psychotherapy 71 Chapter 4 The Political and Social Justice Implications of Counseling and Psychotherapy 73 The Mental Health Impact of Sociopolitical Oppression 75 Sociopolitical Oppression and the Training of Counseling/Mental Health Professionals 77 Definitions of Mental Health 77 Counseling and Mental Health Literature 80 The Need to Treat Social Problems-Social Justice Counseling 84 Social Justice Counseling 89 Implications for Clinical Practice 92 Summary 93 References 94 Chapter 5 The Impact of Systemic Oppression Within the Counseling Process: Client Worldviews and Counselor Credibility 98 Locating Clients' Problems Entirely Inside the Clients 99 Culturally Related Responses That Reproduce Stereotypes 100 Responding When the Issues are Our Own: White Fragility 100 Effects of Historical and Current Oppression 101 Counselor Credibility and Attractiveness 107 Formation of Individual and Systemic Worldviews 110 Formation of Worldviews 112 Implications for Clinical Practice 115 Summary 116 References 117 Chapter 6 Microaggressions in Counseling and Psychotherapy 119 Christina M. Capodilupo Contemporary Forms of Oppression 123 The Evolution of the "Isms": Microaggressions 124 The Dynamics and Dilemmas of Microaggressions 129 Therapeutic Implications 133 Manifestations of Microaggressions in Counseling/Therapy 134 The Path Forward 137 Implications for Clinical Practice 137 Summary 137 References 138 Part III The Practice Dimensions of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy 143 Chapter 7 Multicultural Barriers and the Helping Professional: The Individual Interplay of Cultural Perspectives 145 My Therapist Didn't Understand 146 Standard Characteristics of Mainstream Counseling 146 Culture?Bound Values 147 Class?Bound Values 152 Language Barriers 155 Patterns of "American" Cultural Assumptions and Multicultural Family Counseling/Therapy 156 Time Dimension 158 Relational Dimension 159 Activity Dimension 160 Nature of People Dimension 161 Overgeneralizing and Stereotyping 162 Implications for Clinical Practice 163 Summary 163 References 164 Chapter 8 Communication Style and Its Impact on Counseling and Psychotherapy 168 Communication Styles 170 Sociopolitical Facets of Nonverbal Communication 176 Counseling and Therapy as Communication Style 181 Implications for Clinical Practice 184 Summary 185 References 186 Chapter 9 Multicultural Evidence?Based Practice (EBP) 188 Evidence?Based Practice (EBP) and Multiculturalism 191 Evidence?Based Practice (EBP) and Diversity Issues in Counseling 203 Implications for Clinical Practice 206 Summary 207 References 208 Chapter 10 Non?Western Indigenous Methods of Healing: Implications for Multicultural Counseling and Therapy (MCT) 212 Worldviews and Cultural Syndromes 214 The Principles of Indigenous Healing 218 Examples of Indigenous Healing Approaches 224 Dangers and Benefits of Spirituality 226 Implications for Clinical Practice 227 Summary 227 References 228 Part IV Racial, Ethnic, Cultural (REC) Attitudes in Multicultural Counseling and Therapy 231 Chapter 11 Racial, Ethnic, Cultural (REC) Identity Attitudes in People of Color: Counseling Implications 233 Racial Awakening 234 REC Identity Attitude Models 236 A General Model of REC Identity 238 Counseling Implications of the R/CID Model 246 Value of a General REC Identity Framework 249 Implications for Clinical Practice 251 Summary 251 References 252 Chapter 12 White Racial Identity Development: Counseling Implications 255 Understanding the Dynamics of Whiteness 258 Models of White Racial Identity Development 260 The Process of White Racial Identity Development: A Descriptive Model 263 Developing a Nonracist and Antiracist White Identity 267 Implications for Clinical Practice 273 Summary 273 References 274 Section Two Multicultural Counseling and Specific Populations 277 Part V Understanding Specific Populations 279 Chapter 13 Culturally Competent Assessment 281 Therapist Variables Affecting Diagnosis 283 Cultural Competence and Preventing Diagnostic Errors 284 Contextual and Collaborative Assessment 287 Infusing Cultural Relevance into Standard Clinical Assessments 290 Implications for Clinical Practice 295 Summary 295 References 296 Part VI Counseling and Therapy with Racial/Ethnic Minority Group Populations 299 Chapter 14 Counseling African Americans 301 Characteristics and Strengths 303 Specific Challenges 309 Implications for Clinical Practice 311 Summary 312 References 313 Chapter 15 Counseling American Indians/Native Americans and Alaska Natives 316 Characteristics and Strengths 318 Specific Challenges 321 Implications for Clinical Practice 327 Summary 328 References 328 Chapter 16 Counseling Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders 331 Characteristics and Strengths 333 Specific Challenges 339 Implications for Clinical Practice 343 Summary 344 References 345 Chapter 17 Counseling Latinx Populations 348 Characteristics and Strengths 350 Specific Challenges 355 Implications for Clinical Practice 359 Summary 360 References 361 Chapter 18 Counseling Multiracial Populations 364 Characteristics and Strengths 366 Specific Challenges 369 Implications for Clinical Practice 374 Summary 375 References 376 Part VII Counseling and Special Circumstances Involving Racial/Ethnic Populations 379 Chapter 19 Counseling Arab Americans and Muslim Americans 381 Characteristics and Strengths 382 Specific Challenges 385 Implications for Clinical Practice 389 Summary 390 References 390 Chapter 20 Counseling Immigrants and Refugees 393 Characteristics and Strengths 396 Specific Challenges 400 Implications for Clinical Practice 405 Summary 407 References 407 Chapter 21 Counseling Jewish Americans 410 Characteristics and Strengths 412 Specific Challenges 415 Implications for Clinical Practice 418 Summary 420 References 420 Part VIII Counseling and Therapy with Other Multicultural Populations 423 Chapter 22 Counseling Individuals with Disabilities 425 Characteristics and Strengths 427 Specific Challenges 432 Implications for Clinical Practice 437 Summary 438 References 438 Chapter 23 Counseling LGBTQ Populations 441 Characteristics and Strengths 443 Specific Challenges 447 Implications for Clinical Practice 452 Summary 454 References 454 Chapter 24 Counseling Older Adults 458 Characteristics and Strengths 459 Specific Challenges 462 Implications for Clinical Practice 468 Summary 470 References 470 Chapter 25 Counseling Individuals Living in Poverty 474 Characteristics and Strengths 476 Specific Challenges 478 Implications for Clinical Practice 482 Summary 485 References 485 Chapter 26 Counseling Women 488 Characteristics and Strengths 490 Specific Challenges 492 Implications for Clinical Practice 499 Summary 500 References 501 Index 505
Derald Wing Sue, PhD, is a Professor of Psychology and Education in the Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University, where he also holds a joint appointment with the School of Social Work. David Sue, PhD, is Professor Emeritus of Psychology and an associate at the Center for Cross-Cultural Research at Western Washington University in Bellingham, Washington. Helen A. Neville, PhD, is a Professor of Educational Psychology and African American Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Laura Smith, PhD, is a Professor of Psychology and Education in the Counseling Psychology Program at Teachers College, Columbia University.