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Correctional Theory


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Table of Contents

Preface PART I. Crisis in American Corrections CHAPTER 1. From Theory to Policy: Evidence-Based Corrections Theories of Corrections Six Theories in Brief Utility, Opinion, and Evidence Evidence-Based Corrections Conclusion: What's Ahead? CHAPTER 2. Correctional Theory in Crisis: America's Changing Context What Is Rehabilitation? The Rise of the Rehabilitative Ideal Attacking Rehabilitation The "Nothing Works" Doctrine: Martinson and Beyond Conclusion: Crisis in Correctional Theory PART II. The Punishment Response CHAPTER 3. Just Deserts: Doing Justice or Getting Tough? The Concepts of Retribution and Just Deserts: Punishing the Crime Retribution: Just and Painful Four Problems for Retribution The Justice Model: Restraining State Discretion What Went Wrong? Winning the Battle but Losing the War Conclusion: The Need for Crime Control CHAPTER 4. Deterrence: Scaring Offenders Straight The Concept of Deterrence Is Deterrence a "Conservative" Theory? The Theoretical Assumptions of Deterrence Studying Whether Deterrence Works: Assessing Types of Evidence Policy Changes That Increase Punishment Macro-Level Studies of Punishment and Crime Rates Perceptual Deterrence Studies Deterrence in the Community The Effects of Imprisonment Conclusion: The Limits of Deterrence CHAPTER 5. Incapacitation: Locking Up the Wicked Too Many Prisoners More Than Enough Criminals The Concept of Incapacitation Estimating the Incapacitation Effect: Studying Individual Offenders Estimating the Incapacitation Effect: Macro-Level Studies Conclusion: Compared to What? PART III. The Social Welfare Response CHAPTER 6. Restorative Justice: Reintegrative Shaming The Concept of Restorative Justice The Appeal of Restorative Justice Three Problems Does Restorative Justice Work? Conclusion: The Limits of Harm CHAPTER 7. Rehabilitation: What Works to Change Offenders The Concept of Rehabilitation Knowing What Works Challenging Nothing Works: Narrative Reviews Challenging Nothing Works: Meta-Analytic Reviews What Does Not Work What Does Work: Principles of Effective Intervention What Else Might Work? Conclusion: Reaffirming Rehabilitation PART IV. Extending the Vision of Corrections CHAPTER 8. Reentry: Saving Offenders from a Life in Crime From Parole to Reentry The Reentry Problem Reentry Programs The Effectiveness Problem Two Things to Keep in Mind Conclusion: Saving Offenders From a Life in Crime CHAPTER 9. Early Intervention: Saving Children From a Life in Crime Lessons From Childhood Criminology The Need for Early Intervention Five Programs That Work-At Least When Done Right Two More Reasons to Support Early Intervention Conclusion: Beyond Adult-Limited Corrections CHAPTER 10. Six Correctional Lessons: Choosing Our Future Three Themes Four Lessons Conclusion: Choosing Our Future References Index About the Authors

About the Author

Francis T. Cullen is Distinguished Research Professor Emeritus and Senior Research Associate in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati, where he also holds a joint appointment in sociology. He received a Ph.D. (1979) in sociology and education from Columbia University. Professor Cullen has published over 300 works in the areas of criminological theory, corrections, white-collar crime, public opinion, and the measurement of sexual victimization. He is author of Rethinking Crime and Deviance Theory: The Emergence of a Structuring Tradition and is coauthor of Reaffirming Rehabilitation, Corporate Crime Under Attack: The Ford Pinto Case and Beyond, Criminology, Combating Corporate Crime: Local Prosecutors at Work, Unsafe in the Ivory Tower: The Sexual Victimization of College Women, Correctional Theory: Context and Consequences. Environmental Corrections: A New Paradigm for Supervising Offenders in the Community, and Communities and Crime: An Enduring American Challenge. He also is coeditor of Criminological Theory: Past to Present-Essential Readings, Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory, The Origins of American Criminology, the Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory, The Oxford Handbook of Criminological Theory, The Oxford Handbook of White-Collar Crime, The American Prison: Imagining a Different Future, Challenging Criminological Theory: The Legacy of Ruth Rosner Kornhauser, Sisters in Crime Revisited: Bringing Gender Into Criminology, Delinquency and Drift Revisited: The Criminology of David Matza and Beyond, Deterrence, Choice, and Crime: Contemporary Perspectives. Professor Cullen is a Past President of the American Society of Criminology and of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. In 2010, he received the ASC Edwin H. Sutherland Award. In 2013, he was honored by his alma mater, Bridgewater State University, with a Doctorate in Public Service. Cheryl Lero Jonson is Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at Xavier University. She received a Ph.D. (2010) in criminal justice from the University of Cincinnati. She is coeditor of The Origins of American Criminology, Sisters in Crime Revisited: Bringing Gender into Criminology, The American Prison: Imagining a Different Future, and Deterrence, Choice, and Crime: Contemporary Perspectives. Her published work has appeared in Criminology and Public Policy, Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, and Victims and Offenders. Her current research interests include correctional policy, the impact of incarceration on recidivism, the use of incentives to downsize American prisons, inmate adjustment to conditions of confinement, strategies to prevent school shootings, and work reactions among criminal justice employees. From 2012 to 2015, she served as an Executive Counselor of the Corrections Section of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.


"[The] writing style was clear and made the subject matter easily accessible to the students. Good, concise discussion of correctional theories including examples that enhanced the material being covered. The authors ask the readers to consider important questions that are not always considered in the public realm in thinking about whether certain correctional practices work or not. These questions helped promote engaging discussions in class."

-- Erin A. Orrick

"Abstract theoretical concepts are thoroughly explained and illustrated. It's all done in a brief, relatively readable format."

-- Sheryl L. Van Horne

"Not too heavy on academic jargon, making it easier for students to follow and grasp"

-- Jennifer Cobbina

"Readable, Affordable, Theoretically Grounded"

-- Randolph Myers

"Focuses on the main and essential ideas while providing a clear and to the point conclusion"

-- Lior Gideon

"The text is an incredible composite of the literature that has shaped correctional practice. The authors have a great capacity for making research interesting and accessible. Cullen and Jonson have accomplished their goal of motivating readers to become sophisticated consumers of correctional knowledge."

-- Betsy Matthews

"Book promotes thoughts and avoids the traditional corrections textbook structure and content."

-- Jack Atherton

"It is my experience that students tend to think of theory as boring and unnecessary. This text does a good job of making theory interesting and explaining why it is important. The authors do a good job of connecting theory, methods, and results. The writing style and ways that the authors explain concepts convey a lot of information, which is often quite complex, in an accessible way."

-- Jennifer L. Lanterman

"This is an excellent text that contributes to the knowledge base by presenting correctional theories in such a way that makes it approachable for students. The discussion of the socio-historical context, how this influenced why the public and criminal justice professionals favored a particular theory, and the resulting policies are important concepts for criminal justice students to understand today... I see its value, and would not hesitate to adopt it for a course."

-- Krista S. Gehring

"[Strengths include] Writing style, ease of understanding the material, organization and length"

-- Charlene Y. Taylor

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