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Conservation Psychology - Understanding and Promoting Human Care for Nature, 2E


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Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition xi About the Companion Website xiii 1 Introducing the Field of Conservation Psychology 1 Conservation 2 Psychology 3 Human care for nature 5 The roots of conservation psychology 7 The utility of conservation psychology 8 The practice of conservation psychology 10 The organization of the book 11 Conclusion 12 For further information, visit these websites 13 References 13 PART I HUMAN EXPERIENCES OF NATURE 2 Domestic Nature: Cohabiting with Animals and Plants 17 Animals in the home 17 History and variations in pet-keeping 18 Relationships with pets 19 Health and well-being effects of domestic animals 23 Social effects of companion animals 25 Robotic animals 27 Connections with nature 28 Plants in the domestic sphere 29 Effects of indoor plants 29 Window views of nature 31 Plant-facilitated therapy 31 Experience and effects of gardening 32 Conclusion 34 References 35 3 Managed Nature: Zoos, Aquariums, and Public Parks 41 Zoos and aquariums 42 Reasons for visiting 43 Visitors' experience of the zoo 45 Impact on environmental knowledge and concern 46 Maximizing the experience 48 Urban parks and green spaces 50 Parks and human well-being 52 Children and green space 53 Conclusion 55 References 55 4 Wild Nature: Encounters with Wilderness 60 Defining wild nature and wilderness 60 Wilderness use and wilderness values 62 Wilderness solitude 64 Natural forces and features 66 Wildfire 67 Natural disasters 67 Wild animals: attitudes and experience 69 The edge of control: wilderness remoteness and challenge 73 Activity in wild nature, connection, and caring 76 Wild nature and spiritual experience 78 Wilderness-based growth and therapeutic programs 81 Conclusion 82 References 83 PART II THINKING ABOUT NATURE 5 Attitudes, Values, and Perceptions 93 Core understandings of nature 93 Values 94 Attitudes 98 Perceptions 101 Evolutionary perspectives 104 Conclusion 109 References 109 6 Perceptions of Environmental Problems 114 Risk perception 114 Biases in information processing 118 Language and discourse 120 Understanding environmental problems 121 Attributions of responsibility 124 Linking perceptions to behavior 125 Conclusion 126 References 127 7 Moral Psychology and the Environment 130 Background on ethical concepts 130 Social intuitionism and moral foundations theory 131 A virtue ethics of the environment 134 The deontic tradition and psychological research 141 Contextual differences in moral duties 145 Consequentialism, emotion, and socialization 147 Psychological dynamics of moral functioning 151 Pragmatist ethics 154 Conclusion 156 References 156 8 Environment and Identity 163 The concept of identity 163 Identity development 164 Developing an affiliation with nature 166 Environmental identity 167 Ecopsychology and depth psychology perspectives 169 Measuring environmental identity 170 Place identity 171 Animals and identity 174 Environmental social identity 175 Identity and behavior 177 Putting identity to work 179 Conclusion 181 References 182 PART III ENCOURAGING A SUSTAINABLE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMANS AND NATURE 9 Promoting Sustainable Behavior 191 Identifying target behaviors 191 Influences on behavior 193 External factors 193 Internal factors 198 Models for changing behavior 204 Collective behavior 206 Conclusion 208 References 208 10 Community Psychology and International Biodiversity Conservation 212 International biodiversity conservation 213 Common pool resources and models of governance 214 New conceptions of the commons 216 Social capital and its limitations 220 Psychology, culture, and local knowledge 222 Creating ecological knowledge old and new: Traditional and modern citizen science 225 Accounting for the costs and benefits of conservation 228 Psychological costs of displacing populations for conservation 230 Conservation and all-too-human psychology 232 Psychological biases and emotion 232 Illegal trade in threatened and endangered species 233 Conservation, environmental threats, and conflict 235 Conclusion 236 References 237 11 Environmental Education 241 Environmental education 242 The need for environmental education 244 Examples of contemporary environmental education 246 Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) 246 Classroom-based environmental education 247 Place-based education 248 Programs focused on biodiversity 250 Psychological foundations of environmental education 251 Cognitive development, ecology, and environmental knowledge 252 Affective factors and EE 253 Socialization 256 Action, participation, and problem solving 257 Lessons for effective practice 260 Conclusion 261 References 261 12 The Positive Psychology of Conservation 268 Nature as a positive environment 269 Negative emotions in response to environmental challenges 273 Positive emotions in relation to environmental behaviors 275 Eudaimonism and meaning 277 Materialistic values versus self-determination theory 279 Optimism and pessimism 283 Self-regulation and expectancies of outcomes 283 Explanatory style 284 Cognitive strategies 285 Optimistic and pessimistic biases in environmental issues 286 Toward strengths-based approaches 286 Human virtue and character strengths 288 Other-praising emotions and positive moral psychology 289 Engagement and creativity 291 Mindfulness 293 Collective flourishing 294 References 296 Glossary 305 Index 311

About the Author

Susan Clayton is Whitmore-Williams Professor ofPsychology and Chair of Environmental Studies at the College ofWooster in Ohio, USA. She has served as president of the Societyfor Environmental, Population, and Conservation Psychology and is president-elect of the Society forthe Psychological Study of Social Issues. Her research focuses onunderstanding and promoting concern about environmentalissues. In particular, Clayton is interested in the ways inwhich a relationship with nature is promoted through socialinteractions, and has studied these interactions in zoo settingsaround the world. Gene Myers is a Professor at Huxley College of theEnvironment at Western Washington University, where he offerscourses in conservation psychology, environmental history andethics, and teaches and advises in undergraduate and graduateprograms in environmental education. He is a past president of theSociety for Human Ecology. His research interests include thepsychological foundations of children s relation to animals;the ontogenetic development of environmental care and responsibility;the integration of positive psychology into conservation andsustainability practice; and the teaching of environmental ethicsand the preparation of future environmental educators.


Professional ecologists and conservationists have not always tried to understand the position of local communities because of differences in worldviews. The book Conservation Psychology can help them find a way out of such situations, as the authors reveal the psychological mechanisms of such conflicts. Anna Kuzemko, Bulletin of the Eurasian Dry Grassland Group, January 2017

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