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The Complete Learning Disabilities Handbook
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xv About the Authors xvii About This Book xix 1 An Overview of the Field of Learning Disabilities 1 History of Learning Disabilities 2 Causal Factors 6 Incidence 8 Primary Characteristics of Learning Disabilities 8 Comorbid or Co-occurring Conditions 9 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 9 Conduct Disorder 10 Tourette Syndrome 10 Prognosis 10 Programs and Settings for the Learning Disabled 11 Facts About Learning Disabilities 12 Summary 14 List of Major Organizations for the Learning Disabled 14 Periodicals on Learning Disabilities 15 2 Research in the Field of Learning Disabilities 17 Overview of the Brain, Biology, and Behavior 17 Brain Injury 20 Structural Brain Differences 22 Biochemical Infl uences 25 Research on Memory 27 Research on Metacognition 28 Research on Phonological Processing Problems 42 Research on Maturation and Retention 43 Research on Communication Problems 45 Research on Self-Concept, Self-Esteem, and Self-Efficacy 45 Research on Teachers' Perceptions 46 Research on Social Competence and Social Skills Training 46 Summary 47 3 Understanding the Laws 48 Parental Rights 50 Parents as Advocates 53 Student Rights 53 Teacher Rights and Obligations 53 Behavioral Goals and Behavioral Improvement Plans 54 Student and Parental Rights Regarding Suspension or Expulsion 56 Summary 57 4 Early Childhood Education for At-Risk Students 58 Special Education Services from Birth Through Age Two 62 Special Education Services for Children Ages Three Through Five 63 Assessment of Young Children 64 The Components of an Effective Early Childhood Education Program 65 Maturation and "Readiness" for Kindergarten 66 Summary 67 5 The Student Study Team Process 68 The Case for Early Intervention 69 Recognizing the Need 69 Talking with Parents 69 Parent and Student Preparation for the Student Study Team (SST) 71 Predictable Parental Feelings and Reactions 74 Initiating a Request for a Student Study Meeting 74 The Student Study Team Process 74 The Roles of the SST Members 76 Digital Classroom Accommodations 83 Sensory Accommodations 85 6 Formal Assessment and Identifi cation of the Student with Learning Disabilities 86 The Multidisciplinary Team Process 86 Roles of the Members of the Multidisciplinary Team 87 Guidelines for Assessment 88 Intellectual Assessment 89 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) 89 Visual Perception 91 Auditory Perception 93 Memory 94 Academic Assessment 94 Commonly Used Tests 95 Classroom and Playground Observations 96 Time-on-Task Assessment 100 Language Assessment 102 Health Assessment 103 Behavioral Assessment 103 Summary 104 7 Planning for the Student with Learning Disabilities 110 Eligibility Issues 111 The Discrepancy Model 113 Exclusionary Criteria 114 Assessment Scores and Their Implication for Learning 115 Eligible or Not Eligible? Developing the Individual Education Plan (IEP) 117 Choosing the Appropriate Educational Setting ("Least Restrictive Environment") 117 Determining the Number of Hours 118 Writing Appropriate, Measurable Objectives 119 The Purpose of Goals 119 Dissenting Opinions 120 Reviews of the IEP 120 The Annual Review 120 The Triennial Review 120 Special Reviews 120 Due Process 120 8 Classroom Management for Teachers 127 Creating an Attractive and Useful Classroom 127 Planning the First Week's Activities 128 Behavioral Management Considerations 129 Positive Reinforcement 129 Rules 130 Settling Students After a Recess 132 Projecting a Positive Feeling 132 Finding Better Ways to Talk to Students 133 Preventing Misbehavior 134 Keep the Environment Consistent and Structured 134 Help Students Succeed 134 Use Rewards, Contracts, Tokens, and Reinforcers 135 Rewards 135 Contracts 136 Lotteries 136 Token Economies 136 Handling Misbehavior 138 "Ball in Your Court" Technique 139 Timeout 139 Crisis Management 140 Four Types of Challenging Students 140 Record Keeping 143 Using the Classroom Aide Effectively 144 Twenty Tips for Successful Classroom Management 144 Sample Approaches to Handling Inappropriate Behaviors 146 Summary 149 9 Academic Management Considerations 150 Curriculum, Setting, and Students' Needs 151 Getting to Know Your Students' Academic Needs Quickly Through Informal Testing 152 Goal Setting and Effective Lesson Design 152 Planning the School Day 155 Planning for Flexibility 156 Scheduling and Pacing 156 Using a Variety of Activities 156 Grouping Students 156 Allowing Students Some Choice in Assignments and Rewards 156 Transforming Passive Students into Participatory Students 157 Overcoming Failure Syndrome 157 Planning Cooperative Learning Tasks 158 Suggestions for Maximizing Educational Results 159 Improving Lesson Results Through Feedback 160 Improving Learning Through Specifi c Teaching Techniques 161 Tests That Teach 161 Story Mapping, Advanced Organizers, and Webs 162 Mnemonics 164 Use of Higher-Level Thinking Activities 164 Issues of Grading and Evaluation 165 Tips for Academic Management 166 10 Interventions for Specific Problems 168 Visual Perceptual Deficits 169 Auditory Processing Deficits 172 Spatial Awareness Deficits 174 Conceptual Deficits 175 Memory Deficits 177 Students with Poor Work Habits 180 Interventions for Other Common LD Classroom Problems 182 Students with Poor Social Relationships or Behaviors 185 Students with Dyslexia 191 Sample History Assignment 193 Students with ADD or ADHD 194 Medical Treatment of ADD and ADHD 194 Behavioral Considerations for Students with ADD or ADHD 196 Tips for Classroom Teachers 197 11 Reading and the Student with Learning Disabilities 199 Who Will Have Trouble Learning to Read? 200 Elements of a Balanced Literacy Program 200 Phonemic Awareness 201 Sample Phonemic Awareness Lesson 1: Kindergarten-Grade 1 202 Sample Phonemic Awareness Lesson 2: Kindergarten-Grade 1 203 Sample Phonemic Awareness Lesson 3: Grades 1-2 (Instructional Level) 205 Sample Phonemic Awareness Lesson 4: Any Grade to High School 206 A Step-by-Step Guide for Teaching Reading to Students with Learning Disabilities 207 Letter Recognition and Sound Knowledge 210 Working with the Nonreader 211 Working with the Emergent Reader 216 Materials for Beginning and Emergent Readers 218 Working with the Guided Reader 220 Tips for Teaching Reading 228 12 Writing, Spelling, and Speaking 256 Printing 259 Teaching the Mechanics of Writing 260 Sample Interactive Writing Lesson (Instructional Level 1.3) 262 Sample Writing Lesson (Instructional Level 2.5) 265 Spelling for Young Students with Learning Disabilities 266 Materials 266 Methods 267 Speaking Activities for Young Students with Learning Disabilities 270 Handwriting Skills for Older Students with Learning Disabilities 271 The Mechanics of Writing for Older Students with Learning Disabilities 274 Letter Writing 277 E-mails and Digital Communication 278 Report Writing 278 Journal Writing 279 Spelling Activities for Older Students with Learning Disabilities 280 Speaking Opportunities for Older Students with Learning Disabilities 285 Sample Lesson: Recognizing Nouns 286 Sample Lesson: Recognizing Verbs 288 Writing Activities 290 My Accident 291 Title of My Story 292 13 Teaching Mathematically Challenged Students 297 Diagnosing a Student's Difficulties 297 Teaching Techniques 299 Levels of Understanding: Concrete, Representational, and Abstract 299 Incorporating Reading into the Math Curriculum 303 Teaching Specific Skills 305 Counting Symbols and One-to-One Correspondence 305 Beginning Addition 306 Counting and Understanding the Numbers 0-100 307 Recognizing and Counting Coins 309 Place Value: Ones and Tens Place 309 Counting by Fives 311 Time-by the Hour 312 Time-by Hour and Minute 312 Beginning Subtraction 314 Doing and Undoing: Plus and Minus 314 Building Numbers 316 Addition and Regrouping 317 More and Less 317 Simple Story Problems 318 Subtraction With and Without Regrouping 318 Rounding Numbers to the Nearest 10 or Nearest 100 320 Recognizing and Spelling Number Words 320 Place Value-Through Thousands 323 Linear Measurement 323 Simple Multiplication Techniques 324 Simple Division Techniques 327 Doing and Undoing (Multiplication and Division) 327 Liquid Measurement 328 Fractions 328 Estimating 331 More Complex Story Problems 331 More Complex Division 332 Relating Fractions to Decimals 332 Making Change 333 Summary 333 14 Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities 335 Understanding the Changing Needs of the Adolescent 335 School Changes 335 Physical Changes 336 Efforts to Engage the Junior High Student in the Educational Process 337 Departmentalization (School Within a School) 337 Personal Efforts of Individual Teachers 338 Curriculum for the Junior High School 339 Basic Skills 340 Strategies to Increase Metacognition and Learning 341 The Art of Counseling Adolescent Students 341 Teaching Students to Be Their Own Advocates 343 Transition IEPs 346 Understanding the Needs of the High School Student with Learning Disabilities 346 Work-Study Program 347 Continuation Schools and Independent Study Programs 348 Life and Social Skills 348 Understanding the Needs of the Young Adult with Learning Disabilities 348 Services Available to Students Going to College 350 Vocational Rehabilitation Services for the Learning Disabled 351 Adult Education Opportunities 351 15 The Role of the Family 352 The Role of Parents-as Parents 352 The Home Environment 353 Providing Worthwhile Activities 354 The Role of Parents-as Teachers 354 Supervision of Homework 354 Helping at School 356 The Role of Parents-as Advocates 356 Tips for Helping Your Child 357 16 Education in the New Millennium 359 Increased Mainstreaming 359 Increased Use of Technology 360 Class Size 361 Teacher Preparation Trends and Issues 362 Professional Salaries and Working Conditions 362 Conclusion 363 References 365 Further Reading 373 Index 377

About the Author

Joan M. Harwell has more than thirty years' experience as a classroom teacher and special educator. Harwell is the best-selling author of numerous books in the special education field. Rebecca Williams Jackson has more than twelve years of experience working with students with learning disabilities. She works as an educational consultant and advocate for students with learning disabilities and their families.

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