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Comparative Psychiatry
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Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 1 Definition, Goals, and Parameters.- 2 Concepts of Mental Disorder.- 3 Nations and Cultures.- 4 The "Emic" and "Etic" Viewpoints.- 5 Varieties of Approach.- 2 Comparability of Official Sources of Data.- 1 Hospitalizations:.- a) International Comparisons.- b) Within-Country Comparisons.- 2 Clinic Attendance and Combined Case Registers.- 3 Mortality from Suicide and Other Causes.- 4 Delinquency and Crime.- 5 Populations-at-Risk.- 6 Conclusions.- 3 Comparability of Special Survey Technique Findings.- 1 Case Identification by Practicing Psychiatrists.- 2 Case Identification by General Practitioners.- 3 Direct Identification by Research Psychiatrists.- 4 Household Survey by Questionnaire and Interview.- 5 Direct Case Identification by Questionnaire Alone.- 6 Case Identification by Lay Informants.- 7 Conclusions.- 4 Schizophrenia.- 1 Peoples with High Incidence Rates: Irish and Southwestern Croatians.- 2 Peoples with Low Rates: Hutterites, Tongans, and Taiwan Aborigines.- 3 Shifts from Low to High Rates: Achinese and Tallensi.- 4 Variations in Course and Outcome.- 5 Types and Symptomatology.- 6 Treatment Response.- 7 Conclusions.- 5 The Acute Reactive Psychoses.- 1 Historical Trends in Diagnosis.- 2 International Comparisons: Europe, Africa, and the Caribbean.- 3 Comparisons in Multicultural Societies: Singapore and Austria.- 4 Bouffee Delirante: France, Senegal, and Guadeloupe.- 5 The Psychoses of the Puerperium: West and North Africa.- 6 Amok: Malaysia, Indonesia, and Laos.- 7 Conclusions.- 6 The Affective Disorders.- 1 Historical Symptom Changes in Europe: The "English Malady".- 2 High Incidence Rates: European Jewry, 1895-1930.- 3 Recent Hospitalization Rates: Subcultures in England and Mauritius.- 4 Sex Ratios: Mauritians, West Indians, and French-Canadians.- 5 Ratio of Depression to Mania: South Africa, New Zealand, and Fiji.- 6 Abnormal Guilt and Self-Depreciation: Eastern and Western Religions.- 7 Responses to Treatment: Anglo-Canadians and French-Canadians.- 8 Depressive Symptoms in Community Surveys: Sarawak and Mexico.- 9 Conclusions.- 7 Suicide and Parasuicide.- 1 Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Trends.- 2 Durkheim's Fatalistic and Anomic Types in the Twentieth Century.- 3 Alternative Hypotheses Respecting International Variations.- 4 Psychological and Psychoanalytic Viewpoints: Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.- 5 Suicide and Depression.- 6 Revengeful, "Samsonic," and "Corrective" Suicide: Africa and New Britain.- 7 Impulse Suicide in the Young: Samoans, Trukese, and Guyanese.- 8 The Suicidal Gamble: Tikopia.- 9 A Mutilating Gamble: Singapore Chinese.- 10 Altruistic Suicide: Chinese and Eskimos.- 11 Parasuicide: Northwestern Amerindians and Scots.- 12 Conclusions.- 8 Disorders Associated with Alcohol and Other Drugs.- 1 Drug Preferences: India and Elsewhere.- 2 Consumption Levels and Drunkenness: Primitive Cultures.- 3 Chronic Somatic and Social Disorders.- 4 Drug Dependency: Amerindians and United States Forces in Vietnam.- 5 Acute Somatic and Social Disorders.- 6 Drug-Associated Psychopathology.- 7 Vulnerable and Resistant Cultures: Irish, Apache, Jewish, and Chinese.- 8 Prevention and Treatment Responses: Salish and Trinidad Indians.- 9 Conclusions.- 9 Psychosomatic Disorders.- 1 Gastrointestinal Disorders: Somatic Factors.- 2 Perforated Peptic Ulcer: Nineteenth Century Europe.- 3 Duodenal Ulcer in Males: Twentieth Century Western Societies -.- 4 "Organ Specificity" and Cerebrovascular Ischemia: Japanese.- 5 Hypertension: Tokelauans, Samburu, and Zulu.- 6 Ischemic Heart Disease: Finns and Japanese Americans.- 7 Conclusions.- 10 Neuroses and Other Minor Disorders.- 1 Battle Neuroses from One War to Another.- 2 Hysteria and Latah: India, Mexico, and Malaysia.- 3 Trance and Possession States: Bandari and Abelam.- 4 Phobias: British, Japanese, and Eskimos.- 5 Sexual Neuroses and the Oedipus Complex Theory: India, Laos, and the Celebes.- 6 Conclusions.- 11 Mental Health in Global Perspective.- 1 A Scientific Measure of General Mental Ill-Health?.- 2 Aggregated Morbidity Scales: United States and Europe.- 3 National Groups with Exceptional Vulnerability or Resistance.- 4 Features Distinguishing Vulnerable and Resistant Peoples.- 5 Psychopathology and Positive Mental Health.- References.

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