French writer Jules Verne (1828--1905) pioneered the science fiction literary genre. He published many plays, essays, short stories, and poems during his lifetime, but is best known for Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, Around the World in 80 Days, and A Journey to the Center of the Earth. Today, he is one of the most translated authors in the world. English author H. G. Wells (1866--1946) is best known for his work in the science fiction genre. He was also a prolific writer in many other genres, including contemporary novels, history, politics and social commentary, even writing text books and rules for war games. Edgar Rice Burroughs (1875--1950) was an American writer, best known for his creations of the jungle hero Tarzan and the heroic Mars adventurer John Carter. John Griffith "Jack" London (1876--1916) was an American author, journalist, and social activist. He was one of the first fiction writers to obtain worldwide celebrity and to amass a vast fortune from his fiction alone. His most famous works include The Call of the Wild and White Fang. Arthur Conan Doyle (1859--1930) was a Scottish physician and writer, most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction. He was a prolific writer whose other works include science fiction stories, historical novels, plays and romances, poetry, and non-fiction.