List of Maps xi Notes on Contributors xiii Preface xv 1. Introduction: Asian Christianity/Christianities 1 Peter C. Phan Which Asia? 1 Which Christianity? 2 Introducing Asian Christianities 4 2. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma/Myanmar 9 Elizabeth Koepping Local Basics 11 The Early Christian Presence in Mainland South Asia 14 The First Attack on Contextualized South Asian Christianity 16 A Second Attack on Contextualized South Asian Christianity 17 Contextualization in Early Roman Catholicism Elsewhere in South Asia 18 Protestant Contextualization ? the Pietists 19 The Baptists 21 Laity and the Expansion of Christianity 22 Contemporary Contextualisation in South Asia: Church, State, and People 24 Violent Attacks Against Christian Churches 26 Theological, Ecclesial, and Liturgical Contextualization 27 The Performance of Christianity in South Asia 33 Toward a Conclusion 35 3. Sri Lanka 45 Jeyaraj Rasiah The Land, its Make Up and the People 45 The Portuguese Period 46 The Dutch Period 47 The British Period 48 Independent Sri Lanka 52 At the Turn of the Century 55 The Present Scenario 56 Process of Inculturation and Contextualized Theology 56 Whither Sri Lanka? 57 4. Indonesia 61 John Prior Language 61 Cultural Diversity 61 Christian Diversity 62 Outward Form, Inner Spirit 62 Christians and Muslims 63 Papua: Dignity and Identity 63 Ambon: Conflict and Reconciliation 64 Sulawesi: Vibrant and Vocal 64 East Nusa Tenggara: Christian Heartlands 66 Bali: A Minority within a Minority 67 Java: Indigenous Roots 67 Java: Education 68 Java: Art and Music 68 Java: Movers and Shakers 69 Jakarta: Pietism and Social Engagement 70 Sumatra: Local Roots, National Leadership 71 Future Prospects 72 5. Malaysia and Singapore 77 Edmund Kee-Fook Chia The Countries and Their People 77 Political, Cultural, and Religious History 78 British Imperialism and Racial and Ethnic Politics 79 Christianity: Its Beginnings and Development 81 Christianity: A Foreign Religion 82 The Challenge of an Indigenous Church 84 The Challenge of Islamization 85 The Challenge of Ecumenism 87 The Challenge of Church-State Relations 88 The New and Growing Churches 90 6. The Philippines 97 Jose Mario C. Francisco, S.J. Transplanting Spanish Catholicism 98 Appropriating Christianity, Resisting Colonial Rule 102 (Re)Building Mission 108 Meeting National Challenges, Engaging the World 113 "In But Not Of This World"119 7. Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand 129 Peter C. Phan The Socialist Republic of Vietnam 130 Cambodia, Laos, Thailand 141 A Look Into the Future 144 8. Mainland China 149 Ying Fuk-tsang A New China 149 World Christianity and Chinese Christianity 150 Christianity with Chinese Characteristics 153 Christianity and Chinese Society 161 Christianity's Prospects in China 162 9. Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau 173 Lo Lung-kwong Taiwan 173 Hong Kong 183 Macau 189 10. Japan 197 Mark R. Mullins Introduction 197 The Cultural Diversity of Christianity in Japan 198 Roman Catholic Mission in Pre-Modern Japan 198 Persecution and Martyrdom 199 Hidden Christians 200 The Second Phase of Christian Mission: Increasing Diversity 200 State Shinto and the Christian Churches 201 The Place of Nagasaki in Japanese Catholicism 202 Postwar Developments 203 The Wider Impact of Christianity: Education and Social Welfare 204 Christianity as a Japanese Religion: Diverse Appropriations 206 From "Paternal"to "Maternal"Religion 206 Uchimura Kanzo and the Non-church Movement 207 Inculturation and the Ancestors in Japanese Christianity 208 "Christian"Weddings and the Rites of Passage 209 Inter-Faith Dialogue 209 Future Prospects 210 11. South Korea 217 Andrew Eungi Kim Introduction 217 The Beginning of Christianity in Korea 219 Indigenous Christian Leaders, Past and Present 221 Christianity as an Agency of Modernization 223 The Rise of Christianity Amidst Rapid Industrialization and Urbanization 226 This-Worldly Orientation of Korean Protestantism 227 Individual Religiosity of Christians 228 The Future of Christianity in Korea 228 12. The Middle East 233 Lois Farag The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch 234 The Church of the East 240 Missionary Activity of the Syriac Church 242 Churches in Arabia 243 The Maronite Church 245 The Armenians in the Middle East 249 The Last Century 251 Conclusion: Whither Asian Christianities? 255 Peter C. Phan A Prospective Glance 255 Future Directions: A Triple Dialogue 256 Asian and Pentecostal 259 Index 263
Peter C. Phan holds the Ignacio Ellacuria Chair of Catholic Social Thought at Georgetown University. The first non-Anglo person to be elected President of Catholic Theological Society of America, his books include Mission and Catechesis (1999), Christianity with an Asia Face (2003), and Vietnamese-American Catholics (2005).
"These praiseworthy books from Bays and Phan will enhance their readers understanding of the manifold Christianitiesof China and Asia as well as of the global history of east-westrelations. ( Journal of Ecclesiastical History ,1 January 2013) A stimulating and wide-ranging collection of often valuableintroductions. There are also new insights in a range of settings,for student and scholar alike. (Asia Journal ofTheology (vol. 26 no. 1, 2012) "Christianities in Asia is intended to be an accessible book onthis subject... But overall, the book fulfils its function as anintroduction to the various forms of Christianity in Asia."(Swedish Missiological Themes, 2011) "Leading off an impressive new Blackwell series on globalChristianity, Christianities in Asia is a rich collection of essayson various regions by top-ranked names in the field." (TheChristian Century, 7 October 2011) "This is a fascinating book, which corrects our Eurocentricunder - stand ing of the earliest Church and what happened duringthe later missionary eras." (Church Times, 1 June 2011) "As an introductory text, this volume sets a standard for thefield that will not soon be surpassed. Essential. Lower-leverundergraduates through professional/practitioners." (Choice, 1 May2011) "Christianities In Asia gives a wonderful sampling of essayswritten by Asian theologians who present the ide variety ofChristianities currently in existence in Asia. Eleven theologianstake on the arduous task of presenting the history, the currentcontext, and the practices of Christianity within their ownrespective countries ... nevertheless, as it stands, this bookwill prove invaluable for generations to come as it lays out thehistorical, social and political identity of Asia, which isimperative to understand Asian Christianity and by relation, theChristianity of the West." (Studies in Religion, 1May 2011) "Scholars of religion, some in the country or region they cover,and some in the West, explore Christianity not as it has beenimposed in Asia through Western missions, but as it has beenreceived and transformed into local or contextualizedChristianities, with their own ecclesiastical structures, liturgyand prayers, spirituality, theology, art and architecture, musicand song, dance, and other elements. Among the countries andgroupings are India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Burma/Myanmar; SriLanka; Malaysia and Singapore; Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, andThailand; Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macao; South Korea; and the MiddleEast. They survey is intended to be accessible to nonspecialistsand general readers." ( Book News Inc., February 2011)