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Chirality
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Table of Contents

1 Parity Violation in Atomic Physics.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Parity.- 1.3 Elementary Particles and Forces.- 1.3.1 Leptons and Quarks.- 1.3.2 Forces and Interactions.- 1.3.3 Spin and Helicity (Chirality).- 1.3.4 Unified Theory of Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions ("Standard Model").- 1.4 Parity-Violating Effects in Atoms.- 1.4.1 Phenomenology.- 1.4.2 Experiments.- 1.5 References.- 2 Theories on the Origin of Biomolecular Homochirality.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Observability of Chiral Molecular Structures.- 2.3 Kinetic Models for Unstable Equilibrium.- 2.4 Kinetic Models with Instrinsic Asymmetry.- 2.5 Parity-Violating Energy Differences Between Enantiomers.- 2.6 Homochirality from Stochastic Equations.- 2.7 References.- 3 Chirality and Group Theory.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 The Principle of Pairwise Interactions.- 3.3 The Theory of Chirality Functions.- 3.4 The Approximation Methods.- 3.5 Determining the Lowest-Degree Chirality Polynomials.- 3.6 Qualitative Completeness and Supercompleteness.- 3.7 Counting Enantiomeric Pairs.- 3.8 References.- 4 Helicity of Molecules - Different Definitions and Application to Circular Dichroism.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 The Ideal Finite Helix.- 4.3 Real Molecules or Parts of Them, Fractions of a Helix.- 4.4 Rules.- 4.4.1 The Torsional-Angle-Rule (CIP).- 4.4.2 The IUPAC-Axis-Tangent-Rule.- 4.4.3 The Two-Tangent Rule.- 4.4.4 The Spade-Product Rule.- 4.4.5 The Spiral-Staircase-Rule.- 4.5 Some Applications.- 4.6 Summary.- 4.7 References.- 5 Anomalous Dispersion of X-Rays and the Determination of the Handedness of Chiral Molecules.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 "Normal" X-Ray Diffraction.- 5.2.1 Scattering from a Crystal.- 5.2.2 Friedel's Law and When It Breaks Down.- 5.2.3 Physical Origin of Anomalous Scattering.- 5.3 Past, Presence and Future Use of Anomalous Scattering.- 5.3.1 Outlook.- 5.4 References.- 6 Chirality in Organic Synthesis - The Use of Biocatalysts.- 6.1 Chirality in Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry.- 6.1.1 Explanation of Basic Terms.- 6.1.2 Comparison of Properties: Enantiomers and Diastereomers.- 6.1.3 The Importance of Enantiomeric Purity.- 6.1.4 Methods of Obtaining Enantionerically Pure Chiral Compounds.- 6.2 Biocatalysts in Organic Chemistry - General Remarks.- 6.2.1 Enzymes.- 6.2.2 Whole Cell Systems.- 6.2.3 Types of Selectivities Achieved.- 6.3 Enzymes.- 6.3.1 Classes and Nomenclature.- 6.3.2 Properties and Stabilities.- 6.3.3 Coenzymes.- 6.3.4 Enzyme Mechanisms.- 6.3.5 Active Site and Enzyme Models.- 6.4 Use of Whole Cell Systems.- 6.4.1 Principles.- 6.4.2 Application to Unnatural Substrates.- 6.5 Application of Biocatalytic Hydrolysis.- 6.5.1 General Remarks.- 6.5.2 Resolution of Racemates.- 6.5.3 Asymmetrization of Prochiral and meso-Compounds.- 6.5.4 Selective Protection and Deprotection.- 6.5.5 Mild Conditions.- 6.6 Reduction and Oxidation Using Biocatalysts.- 6.6.1 Introduction.- 6.6.2 Enzymatic Cofactor Recycling.- 6.6.3 Enantioface Differentiation in Reduction of Ketones.- 6.6.4 Oxidation of Ketones.- 6.6.5 Hydroxylation of Nonactivated Carbon Atoms.- 6.6.6 Other Oxidations.- 6.7 Further Applications.- 6.7.1 Use of Organic Solvents, Transesterification.- 6.7.2 Lyase-Catalyzed Additions to Double Bonds.- 6.7.3 C-C Bond Formation and Cleavage.- 6.7.4 Transferases.- 6.8 Special Techniques and Novel Developments.- 6.8.1 Immobilization Techniques.- 6.8.2 Artificial and Modified Enzymes, Enzyme Mimics.- 6.8.3 Catalytic Antibodies.- 6.9 Comparison of Methods and Outlook.- 6.9.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Biocatalysts.- 6.9.2 Future Developments and Trends.- 6.10 References.- 7 Preparation of Homochiral Organic Compounds.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Separation Techniques.- 7.3 Homochiral Building Blocks from Natural Products.- 7.4 Auxiliary Modified Substrates.- 7.5 Homochiral Reagents.- 7.6 Homochiral Catalysts.- 7.7 References.- 8 Transition Metal Chemistry and Optical Activity - Werner-Type Complexes, Organometallic Compounds, Enantioselective Catalysis.- 8.1 Werner-Type Complexes.- 8.2 Organometallic Compounds.- 8.3 Enantioselective Catalysis with Optically Active Transition Compounds.- 8.4 References.- 9 Strategies for Liquid Chromatographic Resolution of Enantiomers.- 9.1 Background of Basic Chromatorgraphic Terms.- 9.2 Strategies to Separate Enantiomers by Chromatographic Techniques.- 9.3 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Considerations for Chromatographic Enantioseparation.- 9.4 Enantioselective Liquid Chromatography.- 9.5 Direct Enantioseparation by Liquid Chromatography.- 9.6 Chiral Phases Using Polymers as Chiral Selectors.- 9.7 Chiral Stationary Phases Using Proteins (Polypeptides) as Chiral Selectors.- 9.8 Chiral Stationary Phases Based on Synthetic Chiral Polymers.- 9.9 Chiral Stationary Phases Based on "Brush Type" Immobilization of Small Selector Molecules.- 9.10 Final Remarks on Brush Type and Inclusion Type CSPs.- 9.11 Indirect Enantioseparation.- 9.12 Final Remarks.- 9.13 References.- 10 The Nucleoproteinic System.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 The Chiral Message.- 10.3 The Evolution of the Chiral Amphiphilic Patterns.- 10.3.1 Darwinian Selection for Chiral Information-Processing Patterns.- 10.3.2 Basal Geometries of Chiral Nucleoproteinic Constituents.- 10.3.3 The DNA-RNA-Protein Triad.- 10.4 Stabilization Within the Dynamics.- 10.5 Outlook.- 10.6 References.

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