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Child Psychology
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PART I UNDERSTANDING THE CONTEXTS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT 1 Frameworks for Development Child Development in Space and Time 4 Key Issues In Child Development 12 RESEARCH & SOCIETY The Social Construction of Childhood 13 Child Development Research in Applied Contexts 17 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with an Outreach Liaison 18 Theoretical Perspectives-An Overview 19 APPLICATIONS Theories as Everyday Explanations for Behavior 33 2 Studying Child Development and Its Contexts Studying Children 40 Methods Used to Study Children 42 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Cross-Cultural Psychologist 48 Studying Development 52 APPLICATIONS Wise Consumers of Research on Development 54 Issues in the Study of Children 56 RESEARCH & SOCIETY Studying AIDS Orphans in Africa 60 3 The Biological Context of Development Mechanisms of Inheritance 68 Genes and Behavior 73 Interaction of Genes and Environment 77 Genetic Disorders 81 RESEARCH & SOCIETY the Human Genome Project 86 Pathways to Parenthood 91 APPLICATIONS Journey to Parenthood 94 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with an Adoption Social Worker 96 PART II CONTEXTS OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT 4 Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn Pregnancy 106 RESEARCH & SOCIETY Technology and Gender Selection 112 Stages of Prenatal Development 113 Prenatal Environmental Influences 118 Birth 130 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Certified Professional Midwife 132 The Newborn 135 APPLICATIONS Caring for Preterm and Low-Birthweight Infants in the NICU 138 5 Early Capacities in Infancy The Organized Infant 150 APPLICATIONS Sleep in Cultural Perspective 152 Motor Development 157 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with an Infant Physical Therapist 162 Perceptual Development 163 RESEARCH & SOCIETY Infants' Perception of Motion 174 6 The Brain, Physical Growth, and Health The Brain 192 RESEARCH & SOCIETY Imaging the Brain 198 Physical Growth 200 Physical Health in Infancy 205 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Family Nutritionist 210 Physical Health in Childhood and Adolescence 215 APPLICATIONS Just Say No? Teens, Sexuality, and Society 220 PART III CONTEXTS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 7 Piaget and Vygotsky Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory 231 Cognition During Infancy: The Sensorimotor Period 233 Thought in the Preschooler: The Preoperational Period 241 APPLICATIONS Selecting Developmentally Appropriate Play Materials 244 Middle-Childhood Intelligence: The Concrete Operational Period 248 Adolescent and Adult: The Formal Operational Period 251 Vygotsky and the Sociocultural Approach 255 RESEARCH & SOCIETY Weaving Generations Together: Evolving Creativity in the Maya of Chiapas 258 Piaget and Vygotsky on Language and Thought 262 Impacts of Piaget and Vygotsky on Education 264 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with an Early Childhood Educator 267 Comparing the Cognitive-Developmental and Sociocultural Approaches 267 8 Information Processing and Core Knowledge Approaches The Information Processing Approach to Cognition 282 RESEARCH & SOCIETY Children's Eyewitness Testimony 289 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Child Therapist 290 Developmental Changes in Memory 290 Cognitive Tools 290 Problem Solving 297 The Core Knowledge Approach to Cognition 307 Theory of Mind 313 APPLICATIONS Brains in a Box: Do New Age Toys Deliver on the Promise? 314 9 Intelligence and Schooling Intelligence: IQ Testing and the Psychometric Approach 328 Individual and Group Differences in IQ 331 APPLICATIONS Reducing Stereotype Threat in Minority Populations 336 Alternative Conceptions of Intelligence 338 Schooling: Variations and Effects 343 RESEARCH & SOCIETY Culture, Schooling, and the Mind 346 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Special Educator 355 Culture, Diversity, and Schooling 358 10 Language and Communication Components of Language 376 Theories of Language Development 378 Preverbal Communication in Infancy 383 Semantics: First Words and Vocabulary 385 Grammar: Communicating in Sentences 392 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Speech-Language Pathologist 393 Development of Pragmatics: Socially Appropriate Use of Language 399 Contexts That Influence Language Development 402 APPLICATIONS Teaching Children to Read 406 RESEARCH & SOCIETY Bilingual Education 410 PART IV CONTEXTS OF SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 11 Social and Emotional Worlds of Infants and Young Children Temperament 428 Emotions and Early Communication 432 Attachment to Others 440 APPLICATIONS Promoting Healthy Parent-Infant Relationships 445 Attachment Relationships in a Changing World 448 RESEARCH & SOCIETY In the Child's Best Interest? 451 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a CASA Volunteer Supervisor 452 Social and Emotional Development in Contexts of Risk 453 12 Self and Identity Theories of the Self 467 Self-Knowledge 469 RESEARCH & SOCIETY Culture and the Self 470 Self-Control 475 Self-Evaluation and Self-Esteem 482 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a School Guidance Counselor 493 Identity and Society 493 APPLICATIONS Possible Selves and Academic Achievement 497 13 Sex Differences and Gender Role Development Sex Differences: Perceived and Real 513 APPLICATIONS Should Schools Teach Visual-Spatial Skills? 518 Influences on Sex Differences and Gender Role Development 522 RESEARCH & SOCIETY When Genotype and Phenotype Don't Match 524 The Child's Active Participation in Gender Role Development 532 Gender Role Development 535 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with Men in Nontraditional Roles 536 Development of Sexual Relationships and Behavior 539 14 Moral Development Theories of Moral Development 552 Influences on Moral Development 560 RESEARCH & SOCIETY When Are We Obligated to Help Others? Cultural Differences in Children's Perceptions 561 Prosocial Behavior 564 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Marriage and Family Therapist 565 Determinants of Prosocial Behavior 569 Aggression 572 Controlling Childhood Aggression 578 APPLICATIONS Intervening in the Lives of Aggressive Children 582 15 Relationships with Peers Peer Sociability 596 Peer Acceptance 604 RESEARCH & SOCIETY Bullying and Victimization in School 608 APPLICATIONS Enhancing Peer Competence among Shy Children 610 The Social Contexts of Peer Relationships 612 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Community Mental Health Practitioner 618 16 Families and Society Parenting Styles 626 RESEARCH & SOCIETY Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Parental Acceptance and Rejection 630 The Family as a Social System 633 Families in Social Context 638 APPLICATIONS Building Tolerance in a Diverse Society 646 Families in a Changing Society 648 CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Child Protective Services Administrator 654 Glossary G1 References R1 Author Index I1 Subject Index I20

About the Author

Robin Harwood is a Research Scientist at the University of Connecticut, Department of Anthropology, and a Faculty Associate, Psychology Department, Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany. Scott A. Miller is a Professor at the University of Florida. He is a member of the American Psychological Association - Division of Developmental Psychology. Contributing Authors Frances Waksler, Wheelock College Alastair Younger, Imperial College Lisa Comparini, Clark University Vivian Carlson, St. Joseph's College Jeannine Pinto, Lafayette College Patricia Greenfield, UCLA Katheryn Hirsh-Pasek, Temple University Roberta Golinkoff, University of Delaware Gail Rollins, University of Connecticut Amy Miller, Public Policy Director Caroline Johnston, University of Connecticut Chloe Bland, New School for Social Research Ronald P. Rohner, University of Connecticut Abdul Khaleque, University of Connecticut

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