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Chemical Engineering for Non-Chemical Engineers


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Table of Contents

Preface xiii Acknowledgments xvii 1 What Is Chemical Engineering? 1 What Do Chemical Engineers Do? 4 Topics to Be Covered 6 Discussion Questions 13 Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 13 Additional Resources 14 2 Safety and Health: The Role and Responsibilities in Chemical Engineering Practice 15 Basic Health and Safety Information: The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) 15 Procedures 19 Fire and Flammability 20 Chemical Reactivity 23 Toxicology 23 Emergency Response 24 Transportation Emergencies 24 HAZOP 25 Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) 28 Summary 29 Discussion Questions 31 Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 32 Additional Resources 34 3 The Concept of Balances 35 Mass Balance Concepts 35 Energy Balances 40 Momentum Balance 41 Summary 42 Discussion Questions 43 Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 43 Additional Resources 44 4 Stoichiometry, Thermodynamics, Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Reaction Engineering 45 Stoichiometry and Thermodynamics 45 Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Reaction Engineering 50 Physical Properties Affecting Energy Aspects of a Reaction System 53 Kinetics and Rates of Reaction 55 Catalysts 59 Summary 61 Discussion Questions 63 Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 65 Additional Resources 67 5 Flow Sheets, Diagrams, and Materials of Construction 69 Materials of Construction 73 Summary 74 Discussion Questions 75 Review Questions (Answers are in the Appendix with Explanations) 76 Additional Resources 77 6 Economics and Chemical Engineering 79 Summary 85 Discussion Questions 86 Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 86 Additional Resources 87 7 Fluid Flow, Pumps, and Liquid Handling and Gas Handling 89 Fluid Properties 89 Characterizing Fluid Flow 93 Pump Types 96 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) for Centrifugal Pumps 100 Positive Displacement Pumps 101 Variable Speed Drive Pumps 103 Water Hammer 103 Piping and Valves 103 Flow Measurement 104 Gas Laws 105 Gas Flows 107 Gas Compression 107 Discussion Questions 109 Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 110 Additional Resources 113 8 Heat Transfer and Heat Exchangers 115 Types of Heat Exchangers 117 Heat Transfer Coefficient 121 Utility Fluids 123 Air Coolers 124 Scraped Wall Exchangers 124 Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers 125 Leaks 125 Mechanical Design Concerns 125 Cleaning Heat Exchangers 126 Radiation Heat Transfer 127 High Temperature Transfer Fluids 127 Summary 129 Discussion Questions 130 Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 131 Additional Resources 133 9 Reactive Chemicals Concepts 135 Summary 137 Discussion Questions 138 Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 139 Additional Resources 140 10 Distillation 141 Raoult s Law 146 Batch Distillation 148 Flash Distillation 148 Continuous Multistage Distillation 149 Reflux Ratio and Operating Line 150 Pinch Point 154 Feed Plate Location 154 Column Internals and Efficiency 155 Unique Forms of Distillation 156 Multiple Desired Products 161 Column Internals and Efficiencies 163 Tray Contacting Systems 163 Packed Towers in Distillation 165 Summary 167 Discussion Questions 168 Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 169 Additional Resources 172 11 Other Separation Processes: Absorption, Stripping, Adsorption, Chromatography, Membranes 173 Absorption 173 Stripping/Desorption 178 Adsorption 179 Ion Exchange 185 Reverse Osmosis 187 Gas Separation Membranes 189 Leaching 191 Liquid Liquid Extraction 192 Summary 197 Discussion Questions 197 Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 198 Additional Resources 201 12 Evaporation and Crystallization 203 Evaporation 203 Operational Issues with Evaporators 205 Vacuum and Multi ]effect Evaporators 207 Crystallization 209 Crystal Phase Diagrams 214 Supersaturation 215 Crystal Purity and Particle Size Control 216 Summary 216 Discussion Questions 217 Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 217 Additional Resources 219 13 Liquid Solids Separation 221 Filtration and Filters 221 Filtration Rates 222 Filtration Equipment 223 Centrifuges 227 Particle Size and Particle Size Distribution 228 Liquid Properties 228 Summary 228 Discussion Questions 231 Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 231 Additional Resources 233 14 Drying 235 Rotary Dryers 236 Spray Dryers 237 Fluid Bed Dryers 238 Belt Dryer 239 Freeze Dyers 240 Summary 240 Discussion Questions 242 Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 242 Additional Resources 243 15 Solids Handling 245 Safety and General Operational Concerns 245 Solids Transport 248 Pneumatic Conveyors 251 Solids Size Reduction Equipment 256 Cyclones 259 Screening 260 Hoppers and Bins 261 Solids Mixing 263 Discussion Questions 264 Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 265 Additional Resources 265 Videos of Solids Handling Equipment 266 16 Tanks, Vessels, and Special Reaction Systems 267 Categories 267 Corrosion 268 Heating and Cooling 275 Power Requirements 275 Tanks and Vessels as Reactors 278 Static Mixers 280 Summary 280 Discussion Questions 281 Chapter 16 Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 281 Additional Resources 282 17 Chemical Engineering in Polymer Manufacture and Processing 285 What are Polymers? 285 Polymer Types 287 Polymer Properties and Characteristics 288 Polymer Processes 290 Polymer Additives 293 End ]Use Polymer Processing 293 Plastics Recycling 294 Summary 295 Discussion Questions 295 Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 296 Additional Resources 297 18 Process Control 299 Elements of a Process Control System 300 Control Loops 302 On off Control 303 Proportional Control 304 Proportional Integral Control 305 Derivative Control 306 Ratio Control 307 Cascade Control 307 Measurement Systems 308 Control Valves 308 Valve Capacity 312 Utility Failure 312 Process Control as a Buffer 313 Instruments that Lie 314 Summary 314 Discussion Questions 316 Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 316 Additional Resources 318 19 Beer Brewing Revisited 321 Appendix I: Future Challenges for Chemical Engineers and Chemical Engineering 325 Appendix II: Additional Downloadable Resources 331 Appendix III: Answers to Chapter Review Questions 337 Index 000

About the Author

JACK HIPPLE is a chemical engineering graduate of Carnegie Mellon University, a 30-year veteran of the chemical industry, and a fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE). His consulting company, TRIZ and Engineering Training Services, was formed in 2001 to provide basic chemical engineering training and innovation problem-solving training to Fortune 1000 companies as well as the AIChE and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). His industrial experience includes leading several of Dow Chemical's discovery research efforts and managing its corporate chemical engineering R&D. He has been the Chemical Engineering for Non-Chemical Engineers instructor for AIChE for 15 years and was elected to the National Board of Directors of AIChE in 2012, serving on its Center for Chemical Process Safety and Finance Committees. He has also chaired AIChE's Management Division.

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