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Ccent Study Guide
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Table of Contents

Introduction xxi Assessment Test xxxvii Chapter 1 Internetworking 1 Internetworking Basics 2 Internetworking Models 11 The Layered Approach 11 Advantages of Reference Models 12 The OSI Reference Model 13 The Application Layer 15 The Presentation Layer 16 The Session Layer 16 The Transport Layer 16 The Network Layer 22 The Data Link Layer 24 The Physical Layer 27 Summary 29 Exam Essentials 29 Written Labs 30 Written Lab 1.1: OSI Questions 30 Written Lab 1.2: Defining the OSI Layers and Devices 32 Written Lab 1.3: Identifying Collision and Broadcast Domains 32 Review Questions 34 Chapter 2 Ethernet Networking and Data Encapsulation 39 Ethernet Networks in Review 40 Collision Domain 41 Broadcast Domain 42 CSMA/CD 43 Half- and Full-Duplex Ethernet 45 Ethernet at the Data Link Layer 47 Ethernet at the Physical Layer 53 Ethernet Cabling 57 Straight-Through Cable 57 Crossover Cable 58 Rolled Cable 60 Fiber Optic 62 Data Encapsulation 64 The Cisco Three-Layer Hierarchical Model 67 The Core Layer 69 The Distribution Layer 69 The Access Layer 70 Summary 70 Exam Essentials 71 Written Labs 72 Written Lab 2.1: Binary/Decimal/Hexadecimal Conversion 72 Written Lab 2.2: CSMA/CD Operations 75 Written Lab 2.3: Cabling 76 Written Lab 2.4: Encapsulation 76 Review Questions 77 Chapter 3 Introduction to TCP/IP 83 Introducing TCP/IP 84 A Brief History of TCP/IP 85 TCP/IP and the DoD Model 85 The Process/Application Layer Protocols 87 The Host-to-Host or Transport Layer Protocols 97 The Internet Layer Protocols 106 IP Addressing 114 IP Terminology 114 The Hierarchical IP Addressing Scheme 115 Private IP Addresses (RFC 1918) 120 IPv4 Address Types 121 Layer 2 Broadcasts 122 Layer 3 Broadcasts 122 Unicast Address 123 Multicast Address 124 Summary 125 Exam Essentials 125 Written Labs 127 Written Lab 3.1: TCP/IP 127 Written Lab 3.2: Mapping Applications to the DoD Model 127 Review Questions 129 Chapter 4 Easy Subnetting 133 Subnetting Basics 134 How to Create Subnets 136 Subnet Masks 136 Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) 138 IP Subnet-Zero 140 Subnetting Class C Addresses 140 Subnetting Class B Addresses 152 Subnetting Class A Addresses 161 Summary 164 Exam Essentials 164 Written Labs 165 Written Lab 4.1: Written Subnet Practice #1 165 Written Lab 4.2: Written Subnet Practice #2 166 Written Lab 4.3: Written Subnet Practice #3 167 Review Questions 168 Chapter 5 VLSMs, Summarization, and Troubleshooting TCP/IP 173 Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSMs) 174 VLSM Design 176 Implementing VLSM Networks 177 Summarization 184 Troubleshooting IP Addressing 187 Determining IP Address Problems 190 Summary 194 Exam Essentials 195 Written Lab 5 196 Lab 5.1: Summarization Practice 196 Review Questions 197 Chapter 6 Cisco's Internetworking Operating System (IOS) 203 The IOS User Interface 204 Cisco IOS 204 Connecting to a Cisco IOS Device 205 Bringing Up a Switch 207 Command-Line Interface (CLI) 207 Entering the CLI 208 Overview of Router Modes 208 CLI Prompts 209 Editing and Help Features 211 Administrative Configurations 216 Hostnames 217 Banners 217 Setting Passwords 219 Encrypting Your Passwords 225 Descriptions 227 Router and Switch Interfaces 229 Bringing Up an Interface 232 Viewing, Saving, and Erasing Configurations 238 Deleting the Configuration and Reloading the Device 240 Verifying Your Configuration 240 Summary 253 Exam Essentials 254 Written Lab 6: IOS Understanding 257 Hands-on Labs 257 Hands-on Lab 6.1: Erasing an Existing Configuration 258 Hands-on Lab 6.2: Exploring User, Privileged, and Configuration Modes 258 Hands-on Lab 6.3: Using the Help and Editing Features 259 Hands-on Lab 6.4: Saving a Configuration 260 Hands-on Lab 6.5: Setting Passwords 261 Hands-on Lab 6.6: Setting the Hostname, Descriptions, IP Address, and Clock Rate 263 Review Questions 265 Chapter 7 Managing a Cisco Internetwork 271 The Internal Components of a Cisco Router and Switch 272 The Router and Switch Boot Sequence 273 Backing Up and Restoring the Cisco Configuration 274 Backing Up the Cisco Configuration 275 Restoring the Cisco Configuration 277 Erasing the Configuration 277 Configuring DHCP 278 DHCP Relay 279 Verifying DHCP on Cisco IOS 280 Syslog 281 Configuring and Verifying Syslog 283 Network Time Protocol (NTP) 286 Exploring Connected Devices Using CDP and LLDP 287 Getting CDP Timers and Holdtime Information 288 Gathering Neighbor Information 289 Documenting a Network Topology Using CDP 293 Using Telnet 296 Telnetting into Multiple Devices Simultaneously 298 Checking Telnet Connections 298 Checking Telnet Users 299 Closing Telnet Sessions 299 Resolving Hostnames 300 Building a Host Table 300 Using DNS to Resolve Names 302 Checking Network Connectivity and Troubleshooting 304 Using the ping Command 304 Using the traceroute Command 305 Debugging 306 Using the show processes Command 308 Summary 309 Exam Essentials 309 Written Labs 7 311 Written Lab 7.1: IOS Management 311 Written Lab 7.2: Router Memory 312 Hands-on Labs 312 Hands-on Lab 7.1: Backing Up the Router Configuration 313 Hands-on Lab 7.2: Using the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) 313 Hands-on Lab 7.3: Using Telnet 314 Hands-on Lab 7.4: Resolving Hostnames 315 Review Questions 317 Chapter 8 Managing Cisco Devices 321 Managing the Configuration Register 322 Understanding the Configuration Register Bits 322 Checking the Current Configuration Register Value 324 Boot System Commands 325 Recovering Passwords 326 Backing Up and Restoring the Cisco IOS 329 Verifying Flash Memory 330 Backing Up the Cisco IOS 331 Restoring or Upgrading the Cisco Router IOS 332 Using the Cisco IOS File System (Cisco IFS) 335 Licensing 339 Right-To-Use Licenses (Evaluation Licenses) 342 Backing Up and Uninstalling the License 345 Summary 346 Exam Essentials 346 Written Lab 8 347 Written Lab 8.1: IOS Management 348 Hands-on Labs 348 Hands-on Lab 8.1: Backing Up Your Router IOS 348 Hands-on Lab 8.2: Upgrading or Restoring Your Router IOS 349 Review Questions 350 Chapter 9 IP Routing 355 Routing Basics 357 The IP Routing Process 359 The Cisco Router Internal Process 364 Testing Your IP Routing Understanding 365 Configuring IP Routing 370 Corp Configuration 371 SF Configuration 373 LA Configuration 377 Configuring IP Routing in Our Network 379 Static Routing 380 Default Routing 385 Dynamic Routing 388 Routing Protocol Basics 388 Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 390 Configuring RIP Routing 391 Holding Down RIP Propagations 394 Summary 397 Exam Essentials 397 Written Lab 9 398 Hands-on Labs 399 Hands-on Lab 9.1: Creating Static Routes 400 Hands-on Lab 9.2: Configuring RIP Routing 401 Review Questions 403 Chapter 10 Layer 2 Switching 409 Switching Services 410 Three Switch Functions at Layer 2 411 Port Security 415 Configuring Catalyst Switches 420 Catalyst Switch Configuration 421 Verifying Cisco Catalyst Switches 428 Summary 431 Exam Essentials 431 Written Lab 10 432 Hands-on Labs 432 Lab 10.1: Configuring Layer 2 Switches 433 Lab 10.2: Verifying Layer 2 Switches 434 Lab 10.3: Configuring Port Security 435 Review Questions 436 Chapter 11 VLANs and Inter-VLAN Routing 441 VLAN Basics 442 Broadcast Control 445 Security 446 Flexibility and Scalability 446 Identifying VLANs 447 Frame Tagging 449 VLAN Identification Methods 450 Routing between VLANs 452 Configuring VLANs 454 Assigning Switch Ports to VLANs 457 Configuring Trunk Ports 459 Configuring Inter-VLAN Routing 463 Summary 470 Exam Essentials 470 Written Lab 11 471 Hands-on Labs 471 Hands-on Lab 11.1: Configuring and Verifying VLANs 472 Hands-on Lab 11.2: Configuring and Verifying Trunk Links 472 Hands-on Lab 11.3: Configuring Router on a Stick Routing 473 Hands-on Lab 11.4: Configuring IVR with a Layer 3 Switch 474 Review Questions 475 Chapter 12 Security 481 Perimeter, Firewall, and Internal Routers 482 Introduction to Access Lists 483 Mitigating Security Issues with ACLs 486 Standard Access Lists 487 Wildcard Masking 488 Standard Access List Example 490 Controlling VTY (Telnet/SSH) Access 494 Extended Access Lists 495 Extended Access List Example 1 499 Extended Access List Example 2 501 Extended Access List Example 3 502 Named ACLs 503 Remarks 505 Monitoring Access Lists 506 Summary 508 Exam Essentials 509 Written Lab 12 509 Hands-on Labs 510 Hands-on Lab 12.1: Standard IP Access Lists 511 Hands-on Lab 12.2: Extended IP Access Lists 512 Review Questions 515 Chapter 13 Network Address Translation (NAT) 519 When Do We Use NAT? 520 Types of Network Address Translation 522 NAT Names 522 How NAT Works 523 Static NAT Configuration 525 Dynamic NAT Configuration 525 PAT (Overloading) Configuration 526 Simple Verification of NAT 527 Testing and Troubleshooting NAT 527 Summary 533 Exam Essentials 533 Written Lab 13 533 Hands-on Labs 534 Lab 13.1: Preparing for NAT 535 Lab 13.2: Configuring Dynamic NAT 536 Lab 13.3: Configuring PAT 538 Review Questions 540 Chapter 14 Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) 545 Why Do We Need IPv6? 547 The Benefits and Uses of IPv6 547 IPv6 Addressing and Expressions 549 Shortened Expression 549 Address Types 550 Special Addresses 552 How IPv6 Works in an Internetwork 553 Manual Address Assignment 553 Stateless Autoconfiguration (eui-64) 554 DHCPv6 (Stateful) 557 IPv6 Header 557 ICMPv6 559 IPv6 Routing Protocols 563 Static Routing with IPv6 563 Configuring IPv6 on Our Internetwork 564 Configuring Routing on Our Internetwork 567 Summary 570 Exam Essentials 571 Written Labs 14 571 Written Lab 14.1 571 Written Lab 14.2 572 Hands-on Labs 572 Hands-on Lab 14.1: Manual and Stateful Autoconfiguration 572 Hands-on Lab 14.2: Static and Default Routing 574 Review Questions 575 Appendix A Answers to Written Labs 579 Chapter 1: Internetworking 580 Written Lab 1.1: OSI Questions 580 Written Lab 1.2: Defining the OSI Layers and Devices 581 Written Lab 1.3: Identifying Collision an Broadcast Domains 581 Chapter 2: Ethernet Networking and Data Encapsulation 582 Written Lab 2.1: Binary/Decimal/Hexadecimal Conversion 582 Written Lab 2.2: CSMA/CD Operations 584 Written Lab 2.3: Cabling 584 Written Lab 2.4: Encapsulation 584 Chapter 3: Introduction to TCP/IP 585 Written Lab 3.1: TCP/IP 585 Written Lab 3.2: Mapping Applications to the DoD Model 585 Chapter 4: Easy Subnetting 586 Written Lab 4.1: Written Subnet Practice #1 586 Written Lab 4.2: Written Subnet Practice #2 587 Written Lab 4.3: Written Subnet Practice #3 587 Chapter 5: VLSMs, Summarization and Troubleshooting TCP/IP 588 Chapter 6: Cisco's Internetworking Operating System (IOS) 588 Written Lab 6: Cisco IOS 588 Chapter 7: Managing a Cisco Internetwork 589 Written Lab 7.1: IOS Management 589 Written Lab 7.2: Router Memory 589 Chapter 8: Managing Cisco Devices 590 Written Lab 8.1: IOS Management 590 Chapter 9: IP Routing 590 Chapter 10: Layer 2 Switching 591 Chapter 11: VLANs and InterVLAN Routing 591 Chapter 12: Security 592 Chapter 13: Network Address Translation (NAT) 593 Chapter 14: Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) 593 Written Lab 14.1: IPv6 Foundation 593 Written Lab 14.2: EUI-64 Format 594 Appendix B Answers to Review Questions 595 Chapter 1: Internetworking 596 Chapter 2: Ethernet Networking and Data Encapsulation 598 Chapter 3: Introduction to TCP/IP 600 Chapter 4: Easy Subnetting 601 Chapter 5: VLSMs, Summarization, and Troubleshooting TCP/IP 603 Chapter 6: Cisco's Internetworking Operating System (IOS) 605 Chapter 7: Managing a Cisco Internetwork 607 Chapter 8: Managing Cisco Devices 608 Chapter 9: IP Routing 610 Chapter 10: Layer 2 Switching 611 Chapter 11: VLANs and InterVLAN Routing 613 Chapter 12: Security 615 Chapter 13: Network Address Translation (NAT) 617 Chapter 14: Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) 618 Appendix C Disabling and Configuring Network Services 621 Blocking SNMP Packets 622 Disabling Echo 622 Turning off BootP and Auto-Config 623 Disabling the HTTP Interface 624 Disabling IP Source Routing 624 Disabling Proxy ARP 624 Disabling Redirect Messages 624 Disabling the Generation of ICMP Unreachable Messages 625 Disabling Multicast Route Caching 625 Disabling the Maintenance Operation Protocol (MOP) 625 Turning Off the X.25 PAD Service 626 Enabling the Nagle TCP Congestion Algorithm 626 Logging Every Event 626 Disabling Cisco Discovery Protocol 627 Disabling the Default Forwarded UDP Protocols 627 Cisco's auto secure 628 Index 631

About the Author

Todd Lammle, Cisco certified in almost every category, is the authority on Cisco networking and certification. His three decades of real-world experience is prevalent in his writing. He is an experienced networking engineer with very practical experience working on the largest bounded and unbounded networks in the world at such companies as Xerox, Hughes Aircraft, Texaco, AAA, Cisco, and Toshiba, among many others. Todd has published over 60 books, including the very popular and bestselling CCNA: Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide and Cisco Firepower NGIPS. Todd runs an international training company from Texas, and a large scale consulting business out of Colorado. You can reach Todd through his forum and blog at www.lammle.com/ccna.

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