PART I. CAREER COUNSELING PERSPECTIVES 1. Introduction Some Perspectives of Personal and Career Development Counseling Multidimensional Influences Shape Behavior Focusing on Multiple Life Roles The Pervasive Nature of Psychological Disorders The Pervasive Nature of Work Stress The Case for Each Client's Cognitive Schemas Recognizing and Uncovering Constraints of Career Choice Cultural diversity and Acculturation Summary Supplementary Learning Exercises 2. Career Development theories - An Overview Career Development Theories Trait Oriented Theories Trait Oriented Theories in Perspective Social Learning and Cognitive Theories Social Learning and cognitive Theories in Perspectives Developmental Theories of Career Choice Developmental Theories of Career Choice in Perspective Person-in-Environment Perspective Summary of Career Development Theory Perspectives Summary Supplementary Learning Exercises 3. Career Counseling Practices A Learning Theory of Career Counseling Intake Interview Using Assessment Results for Career Counseling Interventions Whole Person Approach to Career and Personal Concerns Summary Supplementary Learning Exercises 4. Constraints Effecting Career Choice and Development Model of American Class Structure Socioeconomic Status (SES) Social Class and Socialization Potential Career Choice Constraints Self-Efficacy for Effective Behavior Summary Supplementary Learning Exercises 5. Career Choice and Development and the Changing Nature of Work Initial Career Choice-The Shaping Process Career Choice Perspectives From Career Development Theories Career Choice-Central Component of a Person's Identity Economic Restructuring A Prevalent Career Model-Boundaryless Careers Contract Breach Some Career Barriers Summary Supplementary Learning Exercises PART II: MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS 6. Depression and its Impact on Career Development Biopsychosocial Model Development of Mood Disorder-Depression Biological Dimensions Psychological Dimensions Learned Helplessness and Depression Social and Cultural Dimensions The Career Counseling Connection Summary Supplementary Learning Exercises 7. Other Mental Health and Career Concerns Concerns Associated with Apprehension and Fear Some Causes of Anxiety Disorders Intervention Strategies Concerns Associated with Fear of Social Situations and Being Around Others Influences That Can Lead to Social Phobic Behavior Effective Interventions Fear of Health Problems That are Non-Existent Effective Interventions Substance-Related Disorders Some Causes of Substance Abuse Effective Interventions Biological Interventions Psychological Interventions Social Interventions The Career Work Connection Schizophrenia Some Causes of Schizophrenia Interventions Summary Supplementary Learning Exercises 8. Cultural Diversity Dimensions Some Perspectives on Culture Culturally Developed Cognitive Schemas The Cultural Self and its Career Development Implications Focus on Some Different Worldviews in the Helping Process Family Views Competition versus Cooperation Communication Styles Locus of Control Some Mental Issues of Cultural Groups Abnormality: Universal and Culture Specific Factors Anxiety Disorders Mood Disorder-Depression Personality Disorders Schizophrenia Somatoform Disorders Summary Supplementary Learning Exercises 9. Personality Development, Disorders and its Impact on Career Some Personality Factors in Perspective Secure Relationships Personal Goals Gender and Cultural Diversity Issues Personality Disorders Class A Personality Disorders Class A Personality Disorders in Perspective Class B Personality Disorders Class B Personality Disorders in Perspective Class C Personality Disorders Class C Personality Disorders in Perspective An Overview of Personality Disorders Summary Supplementary Learning Exercises 10. Assessing Personality Development Through Personality Inventories Personality Factors From the 16 PF Questionnaire Global or Second-Order Factors An Integrative Perspective The NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised Some Big Factor Research Results Implications for Interventions From the Neo-PI-R Profile Personality-Outcome Relationships Summary Supplementary Learning Exercises 11. Work Stress Stress Process From an Interactionist Viewpoint Type A Behavior Job Stressors Work Overload Technostress Under and Over Promotion Spillover Electronic Performance Monitoring Work Stressors in Specific Occupations Dimensions of Psychological Well Being and Good Mental Health Work/Family Stress Coping Strategies to Reduce Effects of Stress Self-Efficacy Self-Esteem Social Support Cultural Diversity Issues Summary Supplementary Learning Exercises 12. Interventions and Case Studies Cognitive-Behavioral Techniques Problem Solving Assertiveness Training and Behavioral Rehearsal Systematic Desensitization Cognitive-Restructuring Cognitive Schemas Ellis's A-B-C Theory of Personality Self-Enhancing Thoughts Homework Assignments Behavior Changes by Meichenbaum Stress Inoculation Training The Case of John, A Very Anxious Person The Case of Corrina, A Hypochondriac The Case of Yolanda With Symptoms of a Borderline Personality Disorder Summary Supplementary Learning Exercises Appendix A: Acculturation Scales Appendix B: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV-TR) Classification System (APA, 2000) References Name Index Subject Index About the Author
Vernon G. Zunker, (Ed.D. University of Houston, postdoctoral training at the University of Texas Medical School at Galveston, where he completed a residency in clinical psychology) is professor emeritus, Texas State University. Dr. Zunker had a joint appointment during most of his tenure at Texas State University where he was Director of the Counseling Center for 18 years and taught graduate courses in counseling for 24 years. In addition, he established a student learning resource center, a career development resource center, and was instrumental in the development of a testing center and the university's credit-by-examination program. Dr. Zunker, a licensed psychologist, was also a consultant to the Texas Rehabilitation Commission for more than two decades. He was a member of statewide committee for several years that was charged with the responsibility of selecting psychological assessment instruments for the state vocational rehabilitation testing program that established eligibility of its clients. He has written seven editions of Career Counseling: A Holistic Approach (5th edition translated into Chinese, and 6th edition translated into Korean,) four editions of Using Assessment for Career Development and three editions as co-author. He has also authored two editions of A Dream Come True: Robert Hugman and San Antonio's Riverwalk (translated into Japanese.) He considers his almost 3 years of sailing in the Merchant Marine as one of his greatest learning experiences. He often told his students that as a teenager on his own in a number of foreign countries, he learned to appreciate the significance of cultural differences. He and his wife Rosalie and canine companion, Toddi, reside in San Antonio.