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Brain Stimulation


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Table of Contents

Contributors xi 1 Introduction to Brain Stimulation 1 Irving M. Reti and Andrew D. Chang Introduction 1 A Historical Perspective 2 Focal Activation 3 Connectivity 5 Development of Invasive Brain Stimulation 7 Ethical Issues 9 References 9 PART A BRAIN CIRCUITRY AND PLASTICITY 13 2 A Balanced Mind: A Network Perspective on Mood and Motivation Brain Pathways 15 Morten L. Kringelbach Introduction 15 Dysregulation of Emotion and Mood 18 Potential for Intervention 21 Conclusion 23 References 24 3 Motor Pathways, Basal Ganglia Physiology, and Pathophysiology 29 Hagai Bergman, Shiran Katabi, Maya Slovik, Marc Deffains, David Arkadir, Zvi Israel, and Renana Eitan Introduction 29 The Classic Models of Basal Ganglia Anatomy 30 Basal Ganglia Physiology 33 The Pathophysiology of Hypo- and HyperDopaminergic States 35 From Physiology to Understanding and Therapy-the Computational Models of the Basal Ganglia 37 References 41 4 Viewing Brain Stimulation from a Plasticity Perspective 45 Jay M. Baraban Long-Term Potentiation: A Primer 45 AMPA Versus NMDA Receptors 46 Distinct Mechanisms of LTP Induction and Expression 48 Synapse Specificity of LTP 48 Relevance of LTP Mechanisms to Mode of Action of tDCS 49 Long-Term Depression 51 Metaplasticity and Monoamines 52 Clues to rTMS Mode of Action 52 Future Directions 54 Summary 55 References 55 PART B TECHNOLOGY 57 (1) Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation Modalities 59 (a) Convulsive 59 5 Introduction to Convulsive Therapy 61 Richard D. Weiner Introduction 61 The History of Convulsive Therapy 62 Electroconvulsive Therapy: Basic Principles 64 Electroconvulsive Therapy: Clinical Role 67 Magnetic Seizure Therapy (MST) 76 Focal Electrically Administered Seizure Therapy (FEAST) 77 Future of Convulsive Therapy 77 References 78 6 Improving ECT Efficacy and Decreasing Cognitive Side Effects 83 Keith G. Rasmussen Introduction 83 ECT Outcome Assessment: Therapeutic Efficacy and Cognitive Side Effects 83 ECT Treatment Technique: Basic Concepts 84 Electrode Placement 86 Stimulus Dosage 88 Stimulus Parameter Configuration 89 Treatment Frequency 93 Concomitant Psychotropic Drugs 94 Choice of Anesthetic Drug 96 References 100 7 How Does Electroconvulsive Therapy Work? 107 Irving M. Reti Introduction 107 What Can We Learn from ECT's Action as an Antidepressant? 107 What Can We Learn from ECT's Action in Treating Catatonia? 112 How Do Stimulus Parameters that Trigger the Seizure Influence How It Works? 113 Conclusions and Implications for ECT Treatment 116 References 117 8 Magnetic Seizure Therapy for the Treatment of Depression 123 Sarah H. Lisanby and Zhi-De Deng Introduction 123 Definitions 123 Rationale for MST 124 History of MST: A Translational Developmental Trajectory 125 MST Technique 127 E-field Distribution with MST 133 Neurophysiological Effects of MST 135 Safety 139 Antidepressant Efficacy 140 Future Directions for MST Development 142 Conclusions 144 References 144 (b) Non-Convulsive 149 9 Introduction to Nonconvulsive Brain Stimulation: Focus on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation 151 Masashi Hamada and John C. Rothwell History of Nonconvulsive Transcranial Brain Stimulation Technique in Humans 151 Basics of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation 152 New Techniques: Static Magnets and Pulsed Ultrasound 160 References 160 10 Advances in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Technology 165 Angel V. Peterchev, Zhi-De Deng and Stefan M. Goetz Introduction 165 Pulse Source Technology and Waveforms 165 Coils 171 Technical Aspects of Concurrent TMS and Neuroimaging 179 Conclusion and Future Directions 182 References 183 11 Applications of TMS to Study Brain Connectivity 191 Gabriela Cantarero and Pablo Celnik Introduction 191 Probing Connectivity using Bifocal TMS 192 Connectivity Studies Using TMS Plus fMRI, PET or EEG 204 Conclusions 206 References 206 12 Therapeutic Applications of rTMS for Psychiatric and Neurological Conditions 213 Mark S. George, E. Baron Short, Suzanne E. Kerns, Xingbao Li, Colleen Hanlon, Christopher Pelic, Joseph J. Taylor, Bashar W. Badran, Jeffrey J. Borckardt, Nolan Williams, and James Fox Introduction 213 The Depressions 213 The Anxiety Disorders 220 The Schizophrenias 221 Pain Syndromes 222 Movement Disorders 222 Repairing the Damaged Brain 223 Other Conditions 223 Summary and Conclusions 225 References 225 13 Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Modulation of Brain Pathways and Potential Clinical Applications 233 Michael A. Nitsche, Rafael Polania, and Min-Fang Kuo Introduction 233 Physiological Basis of tDCS 233 Impact of tDCS on Cognition 242 Application of tDCS in Neuropsychiatric Diseases 244 Concluding Remarks 247 References 248 (2) Invasive Brain Stimulation Modalities 255 14 Epidural Cortical Stimulation 257 Ziad Nahas Introduction 257 Options for Treatment Resistant Depression 257 Epidural Cortical Stimulation 259 Disrupted Emotion Regulation in Depression and EpCS 263 Deficits in Mentalization in Depression and EpCS 263 Comparison Across Brain Stimulation Therapies 265 Summary 266 References 266 15 Neurological Indications for Deep Brain Stimulation 271 Jennifer J. Cheng, William S. Anderson, and Frederick A. Lenz Introduction 271 Current Indications for Deep Brain Stimulation 271 Safety of Deep Brain Stimulation 274 Fundamentals of Stimulation 275 Lead Placement 277 Conclusion 282 References 283 16 Psychiatric Indications for Deep Brain Stimulation 289 Reinier Prosee and Damiaan Denys Introduction 289 Deep Brain Stimulation and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 289 Deep Brain Stimulation and Major Depressive Disorder 293 Deep Brain Stimulation and Drug Addiction 296 Potential New Indications for Deep Brain Stimulation 298 References 300 17 Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Epilepsy and Depression 305 Charles R. Conway, Mark A. Colijn, and Steven C. Schachter Introduction 306 The VNS Therapy Device 306 Vagus Nerve Anatomy 308 Mechanisms of Action of VNS 311 Epilepsy 317 Depression 322 General Safety Considerations 326 Future Directions 326 Summary 327 References 328 Index 337

About the Author

Irving M. Reti is an Associate Professor and Director of The Brain Stimulation Program at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA.

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