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Acknowledgements Chronology Who's who Glossary Maps PART ONE: THE SETTING 1 The Background, 1815- 1862 The German Confederation The Zollverein The Growth of German Nationalism The Growth of Liberalism Conservative Acceptance of Nationalism Catholicism and Nationalism The 1848 Revolutions The Radowitz Initiative and the Revival of the Confederation Austro-Prussian Relations, 1853-1859 The Constitutional Conflict in Prussia Bismarck Bismarck's Appointment as Prussian Minister-President PART TWO DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS 2 The Constitutional Conflict Confrontation with the Liberals The Liberals Divided 3 The German Question, 1860-66 Public Opinion and German Unity: The Nationalverein and Reformverein Austro-Prussian rivalry and the reform of the Confederation, 1860-62 Bismack and Austria, 1862-3 The Schleswig Holstein Crisis, 1863-4 The Options facing Bismarck From Schoenbrunn to Bad Gastein Austria's 'Economic Koeniggratz' On the Brink of War The Austro-Prussian War The Home Front PART THREE: THE NORTH GERMAN CONFEDERATION 4. THE CREATION OF THE NORTH GERMAN CONFEDERATION, 1866Â 67 The Prussian Indemnity Bill The Spoils of War The Constitution of the North German Confederation 5. BISMARCK, NAPOLEON AND THE SOUTHERN STATES The Luxemburg Crisis The Southern States and German Integration 6. THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR AND THE UNIFICATION OF GERMANY, 1870Â 71 The Hohenzollern Candidature The Outbreak of War The unification of Kleindeutschland The Armistice and the Treaty of Frankfurt PART FOUR: THE ECONOMIC AND CONSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT, 1871Â 90 7. THE SECOND REICH: A HYBRID STATE The Administrative and Legislative Infrastructure The Problem of Prussia 8. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS, 1871-90 The impact on the Economy of the 'Great Depression' Structural Changes in the German Economy The Political Consequences of the 'Great Depression' PART FIVE: DOMESTIC POLITICS 9. THE KULTURKAMPF AND THE DECLINE OF THE NATIONAL LIBERALS A Bismarck-Liberal Axis? The Kulturkampf Protectionism and the End of the Liberal Era The Tariff Act of 1879 10. THE CONSERVATIVE EMPIRE The Second Foundation of the Reich Bismarck's Loss of Control over the Reichstag Bismarck and the SPD Bismarck's Social Welfare Programme Jews and Poles and the Policy of Germanisation The Formation of the Kartell and a Brief Period of Stabilization Bismarck's Fall PART SIX: GERMAN FOREIGN AND COLONIAL POLICY 11. GERMANY AND EUROPE, 1871Â 90 The League of the Three Emperors The Eastern Crisis, 1875Â 78 The Dual Alliance and Three Emperors' Alliance The Franco-German Entente The Bulgarian Crisis and its Consequences 12. THE CREATION OF THE GERMAN COLONIAL EMPIRE Bismarck's Motives The Annexations in Africa and the Far East Bismarck's Disillusion with the Colonies PART SEVEN: ASSESSMENT 13. BISMARCK IN MYTH AND REALITY Bismarck in Retirement His Achievements Bismarck and the Historians Conclusion PART EIGHT: DOCUMENTS 1 Arminius Riemann's speech at the Wartburg Festival in 1817 2 The Historian A.J.P. Taylor on the 1848 Revolutions 3 The Economy and National Unity 4 The Nationalverein Programme, 1859 5 The Prussian Liberals Long for a German Cavour, 1861 6 King William and the Army Bill 7 Bismarck Foresees war with Austria 8 Bismarck and the German Confederation 9 Blood and Iron 10 Bismarck and Commercial Reform, 1865 11 The Internal Impact of Duppel 12 Liberal opposition to the War of 1866 13 Bismarck and Schleswig-Holstein 14 Bismarck Defends the Austria Alliance, February 1865 15 Financing mobilization, July 1865 16 The Gastein Convention, 14 August, 1865 17 Bismarck's Peace Policy, July 1866 18 Russian and British views on Prussia's victory, 1866 19The National Liberals and the North German Confederation 20 Bismarck on War, March 1867 21 Bismarck and German Unity in 1869 22 The Ems Telegram 23 French Partisans, December 1870 24 Military Impatience with Bismarck, December 1870 25 Alsace-Lorraine 26 Bismarck's Power 27 Speculation Mania 28 The Industrialization of Germany 29 The Flight from the Land 30 Grain Prices 31 The Foundation of the Association for Reform of Taxation and Economy 32 Grassroots Support for Protection 33 Condition of the Urban Working Class in Germany, 1893 34 Reichstag Elections, 1871-1890 35 Annual Earnings of workers in Industries, Commerce and Transport, 1871-1913 36 Bismarck Attacks the Catholic Clergy 37 Bismarck's Guiding Principle in Domestic Policy 38 A Liberal Academic Asseses Bismarck 39 Extracts from the Ant-Socialist Law, 1878 40 German Grain Tariffs 41 Rumours of a coup 42 The Conservative Bias of the Prussian Civil Service 43 Disagreement between WilliamII and Bismarck, January 1890 44 Bismarck declares Germany a satiated Power 45 Bismarck Defends the Dual Alliance 46 Separate Protocol to the Three Emperors' Alliance, 18 June 1881 47 Atmosphere at St Petersburg, Autumn, 1886 48 Angra Pequena 49 German Historians as History 50 Hans-Ulrich Wehler's interpretation of Bismarck's Politics after 1871 Guide to Further Reading References Index
This concise study of Bismarck's role in the unification and consolidation of modern Germany has been fully updated and expanded in the light of recent research.
David G. Williamson has written extensively on modern German history and international relations. Among his publications are Poland Betrayed: The Nazi Societ Invasions of 1939 (2009) and The Third Reich (4th edition 2010). Formerly head of History at Highgate School, he is now a writer and freelance lecturer