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Biomechanics of the Upper Limbs
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Table of Contents

Introduction to Biomechanics
What Is Biomechanics?
Basic Concepts
Coordinate Systems
Force Vector Algebra
Static Equilibrium
Anthropometry and Center of Mass Determination
Friction
Dynamics

Structure of the Musculoskeletal System
Gross Overview of Movements
Skeletal System
Mechanical Properties of Bone
Soft Connective Tissue
Joints

Neuromuscular Physiology and Motor Control
Introduction to Musculature
Structure of Muscle
Basic Cell Physiology
Nervous System
Excitation-Contraction Sequence
Motor Units
Basic Muscle Properties (Mechanics)
Energy, Metabolism, and Heat Production
Receptors
Reflexes and Motor Control

Modeling of Muscle Mechanics
Laplace Transforms and Transfer Functions
Viscoelastic Theory
Hill's Muscle Models
Frequency Analysis
Frequency Analysis of Passive Muscle
Hatze's Multielement Model
Applications of the Hatze Muscle Model
Control Theory and Motor Control
Root-Locus Approach to Muscle Modeling

Models of the Upper Limbs
Anatomy of the Hand and Wrist
Static Tendon-Pulley Models
Dynamic Tendon-Pulley Models
Complex Tendon Models
Two-Dimensional Hand Model
Direct Measurement Validation Studies
Critical Evaluation of Modeling Approaches

Musculoskeletal Disorders and Risk Factors
Extent of the Problem
Common Musculoskeletal Disorders and Their Etiology
Medical Diagnosis and Treatment of MSDs
Epidemiologic Approach to MSDs
Scientific Research and Evidence for Occupational Risk Factors
Scientific Research and Evidence for Psychosocial Risk Factors
Iatrogenesis: A Contrarian View
Legal Issues

Instrumentation
Introduction
Wrist- and Finger-Motion Measurements
Pressure- and Force-Distribution Measurements
Nerve-Conduction Measurements
Electromyography

Job and Worksite Analysis
The Need for Job Analysis
Reliability and Validity of Assessment Tools
Initial Identification of Musculoskeletal Injury Problems
Gross Posture and Task Analyses
Quantitative Upper Limb WRMSD Risk-Assessment Tools
Data-Driven Upper Limb WRMSD Risk Index

Hand Tools
Introduction
General Biomechanical Considerations of Tools
Handles for Single-Handled Tools
Handles for Two-Handled Tools
Other Tool Considerations
Agricultural and Forestry Tools
Industrial Tools

The Office Environment
General Musculoskeletal Problems
Seated Workplace
Keyboard
Mouse and Other Cursor-Positioning Devices
Notebooks and Handheld PCs
Interventions for Office Work

About the Author

Penn State University, University Park, USA

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