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Biology of the Southern Ocean

New or Used: 2 copies from $400.00
First published in 1993, The Biology of the Southern Ocean has been referred to as international research at its best and an invaluable reference. Drawing on the considerable volume of information published in the last ten years, this second edition retains the format that made the first edition a popular bestseller, while updating the information with the latest research results available. The book begins with a description of the physico-chemical environment and, in a logical sequence, covers phytoplankton and primary production, the sea ice microbial communities and the secondary consumers, the zooplankton. The author includes an extended chapter on the biology and ecology of Antarctic krill that highlights its central position in the Southern Ocean food web. A series of chapters consider the higher consumers, nekton (with an emphasis on cephalopods) fish, seals, whales, and seabirds. The following chapters explore selected ecosystem components; the benthic communities, life beneath the fast ice and ice shelves, recent advances in understanding decomposition processes, and the role of bacteria and protozoa. The author synthesizes ecosystem dynamics, with an emphasis on the pelagic ecosystem. He covers resource exploitation, the impact of such exploitation on the marine ecosystem, and the problems involved in the management of the living resources. His epilogue summarizes the extent to which our understanding of the functioning of the Antarctic marine ecosystem has changed in the last 50 years; for example, there has been a dramatic change in our view of krill and its role in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. The book concludes with the statement that research carried out under the AGCS Programme and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) will continue to provide critical information on the functioning of Antarctic marine ecosystems. Intended for all those with an ongoing interest in Antarctic research, conservation, and management, this volume represents one of the most authoritative resources in the field as it covers all aspects of this important marine ecosystem.


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Table of Contents

THE SOUTHERN OCEAN Introduction The Evolution of the Southern Ocean Bathymetry Climate Ice Cover Circulation Patterns and Water Masses Some Regional Hydrographic Features Bottom Water Formation PHYTOPLANKTON AND PRIMARY PRODUCTION Introduction Data Base Species Composition and Distribution Latitudinal Zonation of Planktonic Subsystems Phytoplankton Biomass Primary production Seasonal and Geographic Variation of Phytoplankton Biomass and Primary Production Factors Affecting Primary Production Growth Rates Heterotrophic Nutrition A model of Phytoplankton Production SEA ICE MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES Introduction Sea ice as a Habitat Sea ice Communities Environmental Factors and Sea Ice Microalgal Physiology Sea Ice Micro- and Meiofauna Dynamics of Sea Ice Microbial Communities ZOOPLANKTON Introduction Species Composition and Distribution Life History and Growth Vertical Migration Swarming Feeding Biomass and Production Ecophysiology Strategies for Winter Survival Biotic and Abiotic Factors Affecting Distribution Patterns Life History and Growth Vertical Migration Swarming Feeding Biomass and Production Strategies for Winter Survival KRILL Introduction Species of Euphausiids Life History and Growth Krill Aggregations Distribution and Abundance Feeding and Energy Expenditure Krill Production NEKTON Introduction Species Composition and Distribution Cephalopods FISHES Introduction Species Composition and Distribution Morphological and Physiological adaptations Reproduction and growth Age, growth, mortality and biomass estimates Factors controlling the distribution and abundance of Antarctic fishes SEALS Introduction Species Composition and Distribution Abundance Social Organization and Reproductive Behaviour Feeding Ecology Reproduction, Growth and Development Population Dynamics WHALES Introduction Species Composition Distribution, General Life-Histories and Migration Segregation Reproduction Feeding Ecology Bioenergetics Population Dynamics Role in the Ecosystem BIRDS Introduction Species Composition and Distribution Abundance Breeding Biology Non-Breeding Biology Food and Feeding Ecology Energetics Population Structure and Dynamics Role in the Ecosystem BENTHIC COMMUNITIES Introduction The Antarctic Benthic Environment Littoral Communities Shallow Sublittoral Communities Epifaunal Communities Infaunal Communities Shelf and Upper Slope Communities Deep Sea Communities Microbial Communities Meiofauna Biogeography and Origin of the Benthic Fauna Factors Responsible for Shaping the Antarctic Benthos Biogeographical Schemes for the Antarctic Region Diversity, Abundance and Biomass Food and Feeding Bentho-Pelagic Coupling Ecological Strategies THE FAST ICE AND ICE SHELVES Introduction The Coastal Fast Ice Environment Primary Production Sedimentation and Resuspension Zooplankton The Sympagic Community The Platelet Ice Community The Cryopelagic Community The Ross and McMurdo Ice Shelves ICE EDGE PROCESSES Introduction Ice Edge Habitat Ice Edge Phytoplankton Biomass and Primary Production Potential Causes of Phytoplankton Blooms A Model of Ice Edge Bloom Dynamics Bacterioplankton Ice Edge Microheterotrophs Ice Edge Zooplankton and Nekton Ice edge vertebrates The Importance of the Ice Edge in the Ecology of the Southern Ocean DECOMPOSITION AND THE ROLE OF BACTERIA AND PROTOZOA Introduction Quantities and Sources of Organic Matter Sedimentation of POM Biogenic Fluxes in the Water Column Bacteria Viruses Protozoa Bacteria-Protozoa-POM Interactions The Microbial Loop Nutrient Cycling ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS Introduction Pelagic Zonation Phytoplankton and Primary Production Food Webs Ecosystem Models Southern Ocean Variability and Its Impact on the Pelagic Ecosystem RESOURCE EXPLOITATION Introduction Krill Fishes Seals Whales ECOSYSTEM CHANGES RESULTING FROM RESOURCE EXPLOITATION Introduction Ecosystem Changes Resulting from the Decline in Whale Stocks Potential Ecosystem Changes Which Might Result from Future Resource Exploitation MANAGEMENT OF THE LIVING RESOURCES Introduction The Convention of the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) Ecosystem Approach to the Management of the Living Resources of the Southern Ocean The Role of Modelling Studies Monitoring Indicators of Possible Ecological Changes in the Antarctic Marine Ecosystem Experimental Fishing as a Management Tool Alternative Management Strategies NEW! ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION Introduction Biological Hazards of Ultraviolet Radiation UV Tolerance Mechanisms Impacts of Ultraviolet Radiation on Antarctic Marine Biota Conclusions NEW! GLOBAL WARMING AND ANTARCTIC MARINE ECOSYSTEMS Introduction The Physical Environment Evidence of Global Warming in the Southern Ocean The Potential Impact of Further Global Warming on Antarctic Marine Ecosystems Potential Change in Ecosystem Structure and Function NEW! HUMAN IMPACT Introduction Impact of Stations and Field Camps Impact of Waste Disposal Waste Disposal Disturbance of Nesting Seabirds Contamination of Marine Biota by Pollutants Impact of Oil Spills Impact of Resource Exploitation Epilogue References

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