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Biology of the Southern Ocean
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Table of Contents

THE SOUTHERN OCEAN
Introduction
The Evolution of the Southern Ocean
Bathymetry
Climate
Ice Cover
Circulation Patterns and Water Masses
Some Regional Hydrographic Features
Bottom Water Formation

PHYTOPLANKTON AND PRIMARY PRODUCTION
Introduction
Data Base
Species Composition and Distribution
Latitudinal Zonation of Planktonic Subsystems
Phytoplankton Biomass
Primary production
Seasonal and Geographic Variation of Phytoplankton Biomass and Primary Production
Factors Affecting Primary Production
Growth Rates
Heterotrophic Nutrition
A model of Phytoplankton Production

SEA ICE MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES
Introduction
Sea ice as a Habitat
Sea ice Communities
Environmental Factors and Sea Ice Microalgal Physiology
Sea Ice Micro- and Meiofauna
Dynamics of Sea Ice Microbial Communities

ZOOPLANKTON
Introduction
Species Composition and Distribution
Life History and Growth
Vertical Migration
Swarming
Feeding
Biomass and Production
Ecophysiology
Strategies for Winter Survival
Biotic and Abiotic Factors Affecting Distribution Patterns
Life History and Growth
Vertical Migration
Swarming
Feeding
Biomass and Production
Strategies for Winter Survival

KRILL
Introduction
Species of Euphausiids
Life History and Growth
Krill Aggregations
Distribution and Abundance
Feeding and Energy Expenditure
Krill Production

NEKTON
Introduction
Species Composition and Distribution
Cephalopods

FISHES
Introduction
Species Composition and Distribution
Morphological and Physiological adaptations
Reproduction and growth
Age, growth, mortality and biomass estimates
Factors controlling the distribution and abundance of Antarctic fishes

SEALS
Introduction
Species Composition and Distribution
Abundance
Social Organization and Reproductive Behaviour
Feeding Ecology
Reproduction, Growth and Development
Population Dynamics

WHALES
Introduction
Species Composition
Distribution, General Life-Histories and Migration
Segregation
Reproduction
Feeding Ecology
Bioenergetics
Population Dynamics
Role in the Ecosystem

BIRDS
Introduction
Species Composition and Distribution
Abundance
Breeding Biology
Non-Breeding Biology
Food and Feeding Ecology
Energetics
Population Structure and Dynamics
Role in the Ecosystem

BENTHIC COMMUNITIES
Introduction
The Antarctic Benthic Environment
Littoral Communities
Shallow Sublittoral Communities
Epifaunal Communities
Infaunal Communities
Shelf and Upper Slope Communities
Deep Sea Communities
Microbial Communities
Meiofauna
Biogeography and Origin of the Benthic Fauna
Factors Responsible for Shaping the Antarctic Benthos
Biogeographical Schemes for the Antarctic Region
Diversity, Abundance and Biomass
Food and Feeding
Bentho-Pelagic Coupling
Ecological Strategies

THE FAST ICE AND ICE SHELVES
Introduction
The Coastal Fast Ice Environment
Primary Production
Sedimentation and Resuspension
Zooplankton
The Sympagic Community
The Platelet Ice Community
The Cryopelagic Community
The Ross and McMurdo Ice Shelves

ICE EDGE PROCESSES
Introduction
Ice Edge Habitat
Ice Edge Phytoplankton Biomass and Primary Production
Potential Causes of Phytoplankton Blooms
A Model of Ice Edge Bloom Dynamics
Bacterioplankton
Ice Edge Microheterotrophs
Ice Edge Zooplankton and Nekton
Ice edge vertebrates
The Importance of the Ice Edge in the Ecology of the Southern Ocean

DECOMPOSITION AND THE ROLE OF BACTERIA AND PROTOZOA
Introduction
Quantities and Sources of Organic Matter
Sedimentation of POM
Biogenic Fluxes in the Water Column
Bacteria
Viruses
Protozoa
Bacteria-Protozoa-POM Interactions
The Microbial Loop
Nutrient Cycling

ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS
Introduction
Pelagic Zonation
Phytoplankton and Primary Production
Food Webs
Ecosystem Models
Southern Ocean Variability and Its Impact on the Pelagic Ecosystem

RESOURCE EXPLOITATION
Introduction
Krill
Fishes
Seals
Whales

ECOSYSTEM CHANGES RESULTING FROM RESOURCE EXPLOITATION
Introduction
Ecosystem Changes Resulting from the Decline in Whale Stocks
Potential Ecosystem Changes Which Might Result from Future Resource Exploitation

MANAGEMENT OF THE LIVING RESOURCES
Introduction
The Convention of the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)
Ecosystem Approach to the Management of the Living Resources of the Southern Ocean
The Role of Modelling Studies
Monitoring Indicators of Possible Ecological Changes in the Antarctic Marine Ecosystem
Experimental Fishing as a Management Tool
Alternative Management Strategies

NEW! ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION
Introduction
Biological Hazards of Ultraviolet Radiation
UV Tolerance Mechanisms
Impacts of Ultraviolet Radiation on Antarctic Marine Biota
Conclusions

NEW! GLOBAL WARMING AND ANTARCTIC MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
Introduction
The Physical Environment
Evidence of Global Warming in the Southern Ocean
The Potential Impact of Further Global Warming on Antarctic Marine Ecosystems
Potential Change in Ecosystem Structure and Function

NEW! HUMAN IMPACT
Introduction
Impact of Stations and Field Camps
Impact of Waste Disposal
Waste Disposal
Disturbance of Nesting Seabirds
Contamination of Marine Biota by Pollutants
Impact of Oil Spills
Impact of Resource Exploitation
Epilogue
References

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