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Basin Analysis
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Companion website details x Preface to the third edition xi Part 1 The foundations of sedimentary basins 1 1 Basins in their geodynamic environment 3 Summary 3 1.1 Introduction and rationale 3 1.2 Compositional zonation of the Earth 6 1.3 Rheological zonation of the Earth 8 1.4 Geodynamic background 10 1.5 Classification schemes of sedimentary basins 15 2 The physical state of the lithosphere 20 Summary 20 2.1 Stress and strain 21 2.2 Heat flow 31 2.3 Rock rheology and lithospheric strength profiles 43 Part 2 The mechanics of sedimentary basin formation 51 3 Basins due to lithospheric stretching 53 Summary 53 3.1 Introduction 54 3.2 Geological and geophysical observations in regions of continental extension 56 3.3 Uniform stretching of the continental lithosphere 72 3.4 Modifi cations to the uniform stretching model 78 3.5 A dynamical approach to lithospheric extension 88 3.6 Estimation of the stretch factor and strain rate history 95 4 Basins due to flexure 98 Summary 98 4.1 Basic observations in regions of lithospheric flexure 99 4.2 Flexure of the lithosphere: geometry of the deflection 104 4.3 Flexural rigidity of oceanic and continental lithosphere 109 4.4 Lithospheric buckling and in-plane stress 116 4.5 Orogenic wedges 118 4.6 Foreland basin systems 131 5 Effects of mantle dynamics 153 Summary 153 5.1 Fundamentals and observations 154 5.2 Surface topography and bathymetry produced by mantle flow 164 5.3 Mantle dynamics and magmatic activity 178 5.4 Mantle dynamics and basin development 181 6 Basins associated with strike-slip deformation 188 Summary 188 6.1 Overview 189 6.2 The structural pattern of strike-slip fault systems 194 6.3 Basins in strike-slip zones 201 6.4 Modelling of pull-apart basins 209 6.5 Characteristic depositional systems 217 Part 3 The sedimentary basin-fill 223 7 The sediment routing system 225 Summary 225 7.1 The sediment routing system in basin analysis 226 7.2 The erosional engine 227 7.3 Measurements of erosion rates 246 7.4 Channel-hillslope processes 256 7.5 Long-range sediment transport and deposition 260 7.6 Joined-up thinking: teleconnections in source-to-sink systems 273 8 Basin stratigraphy 284 Summary 284 8.1 A primer on process stratigraphy 285 8.2 Stratigraphic cycles: defi nition and recognition 289 8.3 Dynamical approaches to stratigraphy 308 8.4 Landscapes into rock 315 9 Subsidence history 326 Summary 326 9.1 Introduction to subsidence analysis 327 9.2 Compressibility and compaction of porous sediments: fundamentals 327 9.3 Porosity and permeability of sediments and sedimentary rocks 330 9.4 Subsidence history and backstripping 335 9.5 Tectonic subsidence signatures 339 10 Thermal history 343 Summary 343 10.1 Introduction 344 10.2 Theory: the Arrhenius equation and maturation indices 344 10.3 Factors influencing temperatures and paleotemperatures in sedimentary basins 345 10.4 Measurements of thermal maturity in sedimentary basins 354 10.5 Application of thermal maturity measurements 361 10.6 Geothermal and paleogeothermal signatures of basin types 367 Part 4 Application to petroleum play assessment 371 11 Building blocks of the petroleum play 373 Summary 373 11.1 From basin analysis to play concept 374 11.2 The petroleum system and play concept 374 11.3 The source rock 379 11.4 The petroleum charge 393 11.5 The reservoir 402 11.6 The regional topseal 415 11.7 The trap 419 11.8 Global distribution of petroleum resources 434 12 Classic and unconventional plays 436 Summary 436 12.1 Classic petroleum plays 437 12.2 Unconventional petroleum plays 442 12.3 Geosequestration: an emerging application 449 Appendices: derivations and practical exercises 455 1 Rock density as a function of depth 457 2 Airy isostatic balance 459 3 Deviatoric stress at the edge of a continental block 461 4 Lateral buoyancy forces in the lithosphere 463 5 Derivation of flexural rigidity and the general flexure equation 465 6 Flexural isostasy 468 7 The 1D heat conduction equation 470 8 Derivation of the continental geotherm 472 9 Radiogenic heat production 473 10 Surface heat fl ow and the radiogenic contribution 475 11 Radiogenic heat production of various rock types 477 12 Effects of erosion and deposition on the geotherm 479 13 Effects of variable radiogenic heating and thermal conductivity on the geotherm in the basin-fill 481 14 The mantle adiabat and peridotite solidus 485 15 Lithospheric strength envelopes 487 16 Rift zones: strain rate, extension velocity and bulk strain 490 17 The ?reference? uniform extension model 492 18 Boundary conditions for lithospheric stretching 494 19 Subsidence as a function of the stretch factor 496 20 Inversion of the stretch factor from thermal subsidence data 497 21 Calculation of the instantaneous syn-rift subsidence 499 22 The transient temperature solution 501 23 Heat fl ow during uniform stretching using a Fourier series 503 24 The stretch factor for extension along crustal faults 505 25 Protracted rifting times during continental extension 507 26 Lithospheric extension and melting 508 27 Igneous underplating ? an isostatic balance 509 28 Uniform stretching at passive margins 510 29 Flexure of continuous and broken plates 511 30 The time scale of flexural isostatic rebound or subsidence 513 31 Flexural rigidity derived from uplifted lake paleoshorelines 515 32 Deflection under a distributed load ? Jordan (1981) solution 516 33 Deflection under a distributed load ? numerical solution of Wangen (2010) 517 34 Deflection under a periodic distributed load 519 35 Flexural unloading from a distributed load ? the cantilever effect 520 36 Bending from multiple loads: the Hellenides and Apennines in central Italy?Albania 522 37 Flexural profiles, subsidence history and the flexural forebulge unconformity 524 38 Bending stresses in an elastic plate 525 39 In-plane forces and surface topography during orogenesis 527 40 The onset of convection 529 41 A global predictor for sediment discharge: the BQART equations 530 42 Modelling hillslopes 532 43 The sediment continuity (Exner) equation 534 44 Use of the stream power rule 535 45 Effects of tectonic uplift on stream longitudinal profiles 537 46 Estimation of the uplift rate from an area-slope analysis 539 47 Uplift history from stream profiles characterised by knickpoint migration 540 48 Sediment deposition using the heat equation 541 49 Axial versus transverse drainage 542 50 Downstream fining of gravel 545 51 Sinusoidal eustatic change superimposed on background tectonic subsidence 546 52 Isostatic effects of absolute sea-level change 547 53 Sea-level change resulting from sedimentation 548 54 The consolidation line 549 55 Relation between porosity and permeability ? the Kozeny-Carman relationship 550 56 Decompaction 551 57 Backstripping 555 58 From decompaction to thermal history 556 59 Advective heat transport by fl uids 562 60 Heat flow in fractured rock 563 References 564 Index 603

About the Author

Philip Allen graduated with a Bachelor s degree inGeology from the University of Wales, Aberystwyth and a PhD fromCambridge University. He held lectureships at Cardiff and Oxford,and professorships at Trinity College Dublin, ETH-Zurich andImperial College London. He is a process-oriented Earth scientistwith particular interests in the interactions and feedbacks betweenthe solid Earth and its exosphere through thecritical interface of the Earth s surface. John Allen has over 30 years of experience in theinternational oil and gas industry as a petroleum geologist,exploration manager, senior exploration advisor, and businessstrategist with British Petroleum (BP) and BHP Billiton, as well asseveral years of experience as a non-executive director. He iscurrently based in Melbourne, Australia.

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