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BSD Sockets Programming from a Mult-language Perspective
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Table of Contents

Introduction to Sockets Programming 1 Networking Overview What Is the Internet? Internet Model of Communication The IP Protocol Suite Network Layer Transport Layer Application Layer Types of Communication Stream Datagram Broadcast Multicast Packet Processing in a Network Stack Addressing IP Addresses Subnetting Introduction to IP Routing Simple Routing Example Local (Interior) Ethernet Routing Exterior Routing Network Entities Hosts Bridges Routers Gateways 2 Introduction to Sockets Programming The Sockets Programming Paradigm Ports Sockets Addressing Sample Server Source Discussion Sample Client Source Discussion Client/Server Symmetry Network Byte Order Swapping Byte Order 3 Standard BSD API Functions socketFunction bindFunction listenFunction acceptFunction connectFunction recv/recvfromFunction send/sendtoFunction closeFunction htons/ntohs/htonl/ntohlFunctions inet_addr/inet_aton/inet_ntoaFunctions 4 Advanced Sockets Functions selectFunction getsocknameFunction getpeernameFunction getsockopt/setsockoptFunctions shutdownFunction gethostname/sethostnameFunctions gethostbyaddrFunction gethostbynameFunction getservbynameFunction getservbyportFunction 5 Socket Options Socket Options API Sockets Layer Options TCP Layer Options IP Layer Options 6 Advanced Sockets Programming Topics Out-of-Band (OOB) Data Nonblocking Sockets Determining Peer Socket Closure Resolving a Domain Name to an IP Address Writing Servers for Multi-homed Nodes Timing Out a Socket Connect Data Framing (TCP vs. UDP) Connectionless and Connected Datagram Sockets Timing Out a Read or Write Operation Determining Peer Information Determining the Protocol Argument for Socket Identifying Service Ports and Protocols Optimizing Sockets Applications Ensuring Full-Sized Segments Optimizing the Send and Receive Buffer Sizes Socket Buffer Sizes and TCP Socket Buffers and Performance Configuring the Socket Buffer Sizes Other Options Minimizing Latency with TCP_NODELAY Reading/Writing All Available Data Advantages and Disadvantages to Select Using Multiple Sockets Separating Control and Data Connections Using Stack Callbacks Using Zero-Copy Buffer Functions Using UDP instead of TCP Stack Selection Stack Configuration 8 Sockets Programming Pitfalls Failing to use Function Return values Ignoring Peer Socket Closure Ignoring Endianness of Parameters in API Functions Making Protocol Framing Assumptions Causing "Address in Use" Error for Bind Listening on Multiple Interfaces Initial UDP Datagrams Disappearing Defensive Programming Using Safe Functions to Avoid Buffer Overflow Rigorously Checking Error Returns Rigorously Checking Input and Output Parameters Declaring String Arrays Minimizing Protocol Feedback Initializing All Variables Enabling All Compiler Warnings Part II Sockets Programming from a Multi-Language Perspective 9 Network Programming in the C Language C Language Overview Origin of the C Language C Language Heritage Tools Compiler/Tools Used Networking API Used Where to Download Networking API for C Sockets API Summary Sockets API Discussion 10 Network Programming in Java Java Language Overview Origin of the Java Language Java Language Heritage Tools Interpreter/Tools Used Networking API Used Where to Download Networking API for Java Sockets API Summary Sockets API Discussion Specialized Networking APIs for Java Java URL Class for HTTP 11 Network Programming in Python Python Language Overview Origin of the Python Language Python Language Heritage Tools Interpreter/Tools Used Networking API Used Where to Download Networking API for Python Sockets API Discussion Specialized Networking APIs for Python Python smtplibModule Python httplib Module Python SocketServerModule 12 Network Programming in Perl Perl Language Overview Origin of the Perl Language Perl Language Heritage Tools Interpreter/Tools Used Networking API Used Where to Download Networking API for Perl Sockets API Discussion Specialized Networking APIs for Perl Perl Net::SMTPModule Perl LWP::SimpleModule 13 Network Programming in Ruby Ruby Language Overview Origin of the Ruby Language Ruby Language Heritage Tools Interpreter/Tools Used Networking API Used Where to Download Networking API for Ruby Class vs. Instance Methods Sockets API Summary Sockets API Discussion Specialized Networking APIs for Ruby Ruby Net::SMTPClass Ruby Net::HTTPClass 14 Network Programming in Tcl Tcl Language Overview Origin of the Tcl Language Tcl Language Heritage Tools Interpreter/Tools Used Networking API Used Where to Download Networking API for Tcl Sockets API Discussion Part III Software Patterns from a Multi-Language Perspective 15 Software Patterns Introduction Stream Server/Client Design Datagram Server/Client Design Broadcast Datagram Server/Client Design Multicast Datagram Server/Client Design Simple HTTP Server Design Simple SMTP Client Design 16 Network Code Patterns in C Stream (TCP) Server/Client Stream Server Stream Client Datagram (UDP) Server/Client Datagram Server Datagram Client Multicast Server/Client Multicast Server Multicast Client Broadcast Server/Client Broadcast Server Broadcast Client Simple HTTP Server Simple SMTP Client 17 Network Code Patterns in Java Stream (TCP) Server/Client Stream Server Stream Client Datagram (UDP) Server/Client Datagram Server Datagram Client Multicast Server/Client Multicast Server Multicast Client Simple HTTP Server Simple SMTP Client 18 Network Code Patterns in Python Stream (TCP) Server/Client Stream Server Stream Client Datagram (UDP) Server/Client Datagram Server Datagram Client Multicast Server/Client Multicast Server Multicast Client Broadcast Server/Client Broadcast Server Broadcast Client Simple HTTP Server Simple SMTP Client 19 Network Code Patterns in Perl Stream (TCP) Server/Client Stream Server Stream Client Datagram (UDP) Server/Client Datagram Server Datagram Client Multicast Server/Client Multicast Server Multicast Client Broadcast Server/Client Broadcast Server Broadcast Client Simple HTTP Server Simple SMTP Client 20 Network Code Patterns in Ruby Stream (TCP) Server/Client Stream Server Stream Client Datagram (UDP) Server/Client Datagram Server Datagram Client Multicast Server/Client Multicast Server Multicast Client Broadcast Server/Client Broadcast Server Broadcast Client Simple HTTP Server Simple SMTP Client 21 Network Code Patterns in Tcl Introduction Stream (TCP) Server/Client Stream Server Stream Client Datagram (UDP) Client Datagram Client Multicast Server/Client Multicast Server Multicast Client Broadcast (UDP) Client Simple HTTP Server Simple SMTP Client Appendix A About the CD-ROM System Requirements Operating System Requirements On the CD-ROM Software Patterns Software Tools Software License Appendix B Acronyms

About the Author

M. Tim Jones is an embedded software architect and the author of numerous books, including AI Application Programming, Second Edition (Charles River Media), BSD Sockets Programming from a Multilanguage Perspective (Charles River Media), Artifi cial Intelligence: A Systems Approach, and many articles on a variety of technical subjects. His engineering background ranges from the development of kernels for geosynchronous spacecraft to embedded systems architecture and networking protocols development. Tim is a consultant engineer for Emulex Corp. in Longmont, Colorado.

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INTRODUCTION TO SOCKETS PROGRAMMING 1 NETWORKING OVERVIEW What Is the Internet? Internet Model of Communication The IP Protocol Suite Network Layer Transport Layer Application Layer Types of Communication Stream Datagram Broadcast Multicast Packet Processing in a Network Stack Addressing IP Addresses Subnetting Introduction to IP Routing Simple Routing Example Local (Interior) Ethernet Routing Exterior Routing Network Entities Hosts Bridges Routers Gateways 2 INTRODUCTION TO SOCKETS PROGRAMMING The Sockets Programming Paradigm Ports Sockets Addressing Sample Server Source Discussion Sample Client Source Discussion Client/Server Symmetry Network Byte Order Swapping Byte Order 3 STANDARD BSD API FUNCTIONS socketFunction bindFunction listenFunction acceptFunction connectFunction recv/recvfromFunction send/sendtoFunction closeFunction htons/ntohs/htonl/ntohlFunctions inet_addr/inet_aton/inet_ntoaFunctions 4 ADVANCED SOCKETS FUNCTIONS selectFunction getsocknameFunction getpeernameFunction getsockopt/setsockoptFunctions shutdownFunction gethostname/sethostnameFunctions gethostbyaddrFunction gethostbynameFunction getservbynameFunction getservbyportFunction 5 SOCKET OPTIONS Socket Options API Sockets Layer Options TCP Layer Options IP Layer Options 6 ADVANCED SOCKETS PROGRAMMING TOPICS Out-of-Band (OOB) Data Nonblocking Sockets Determining Peer Socket Closure Resolving a Domain Name to an IP Address Writing Servers for Multi-homed Nodes Timing Out a Socket Connect Data Framing (TCP vs. UDP) Connectionless and Connected Datagram Sockets Timing Out a Read or Write Operation Determining Peer Information Determining the Protocol Argument for Socket Identifying Service Ports and Protocols Optimizing Sockets Applications Ensuring Full-Sized Segments Optimizing the Send and Receive Buffer Sizes Socket Buffer Sizes and TCP Socket Buffers and Performance Configuring the Socket Buffer Sizes Other Options Minimizing Latency with TCP_NODELAY Reading/Writing All Available Data Advantages and Disadvantages to Select Using Multiple Sockets Separating Control and Data Connections Using Stack Callbacks Using Zero-Copy Buffer Functions Using UDP instead of TCP Stack Selection Stack Configuration 8 SOCKETS PROGRAMMING PITFALLS Failing to use Function Return values Ignoring Peer Socket Closure Ignoring Endianness of Parameters in API Functions Making Protocol Framing Assumptions Causing "Address in Use" Error for Bind Listening on Multiple Interfaces Initial UDP Datagrams Disappearing Defensive Programming Using Safe Functions to Avoid Buffer Overflow Rigorously Checking Error Returns Rigorously Checking Input and Output Parameters Declaring String Arrays Minimizing Protocol Feedback Initializing All Variables Enabling All Compiler Warnings PART II SOCKETS PROGRAMMING FROM A MULTI-LANGUAGE PERSPECTIVE 9 NETWORK PROGRAMMING IN THE C LANGUAGE C Language Overview Origin of the C Language C Language Heritage Tools Compiler/Tools Used Networking API Used Where to Download Networking API for C Sockets API Summary Sockets API Discussion 10 NETWORK PROGRAMMING IN JAVA Java Language Overview Origin of the Java Language Java Language Heritage Tools Interpreter/Tools Used Networking API Used Where to Download Networking API for Java Sockets API Summary Sockets API Discussion Specialized Networking APIs for Java Java URL Class for HTTP 11 NETWORK PROGRAMMING IN PYTHON Python Language Overview Origin of the Python Language Python Language Heritage Tools Interpreter/Tools Used Networking API Used Where to Download Networking API for Python Sockets API Discussion Specialized Networking APIs for Python Python smtplibModule Python httplib Module Python SocketServerModule 12 NETWORK PROGRAMMING IN PERL Perl Language Overview Origin of the Perl Language Perl Language Heritage Tools Interpreter/Tools Used Networking API Used Where to Download Networking API for Perl Sockets API Discussion Specialized Networking APIs for Perl Perl Net::SMTPModule Perl LWP::SimpleModule 13 NETWORK PROGRAMMING IN RUBY Ruby Language Overview Origin of the Ruby Language Ruby Language Heritage Tools Interpreter/Tools Used Networking API Used Where to Download Networking API for Ruby Class vs. Instance Methods Sockets API Summary Sockets API Discussion Specialized Networking APIs for Ruby Ruby Net::SMTPClass Ruby Net::HTTPClass 14 NETWORK PROGRAMMING IN TCL Tcl Language Overview Origin of the Tcl Language Tcl Language Heritage Tools Interpreter/Tools Used Networking API Used Where to Download Networking API for Tcl Sockets API Discussion PART III SOFTWARE PATTERNS FROM A MULTI-LANGUAGE PERSPECTIVE 15 SOFTWARE PATTERNS INTRODUCTION Stream Server/Client Design Datagram Server/Client Design Broadcast Datagram Server/Client Design Multicast Datagram Server/Client Design Simple HTTP Server Design Simple SMTP Client Design 16 NETWORK CODE PATTERNS IN C Stream (TCP) Server/Client Stream Server Stream Client Datagram (UDP) Server/Client Datagram Server Datagram Client Multicast Server/Client Multicast Server Multicast Client Broadcast Server/Client Broadcast Server Broadcast Client Simple HTTP Server Simple SMTP Client 17 NETWORK CODE PATTERNS IN JAVA Stream (TCP) Server/Client Stream Server Stream Client Datagram (UDP) Server/Client Datagram Server Datagram Client Multicast Server/Client Multicast Server Multicast Client Simple HTTP Server Simple SMTP Client 18 NETWORK CODE PATTERNS IN PYTHON Stream (TCP) Server/Client Stream Server Stream Client Datagram (UDP) Server/Client Datagram Server Datagram Client Multicast Server/Client Multicast Server Multicast Client Broadcast Server/Client Broadcast Server Broadcast Client Simple HTTP Server Simple SMTP Client 19 NETWORK CODE PATTERNS IN PERL Stream (TCP) Server/Client Stream Server Stream Client Datagram (UDP) Server/Client Datagram Server Datagram Client Multicast Server/Client Multicast Server Multicast Client Broadcast Server/Client Broadcast Server Broadcast Client Simple HTTP Server Simple SMTP Client 20 NETWORK CODE PATTERNS IN RUBY Stream (TCP) Server/Client Stream Server Stream Client Datagram (UDP) Server/Client Datagram Server Datagram Client Multicast Server/Client Multicast Server Multicast Client Broadcast Server/Client Broadcast Server Broadcast Client Simple HTTP Server Simple SMTP Client 21 NETWORK CODE PATTERNS IN TCL Introduction Stream (TCP) Server/Client Stream Server Stream Client Datagram (UDP) Client Datagram Client Multicast Server/Client Multicast Server Multicast Client Broadcast (UDP) Client Simple HTTP Server Simple SMTP Client Appendix A About the CD-ROM System Requirements Operating System Requirements On the CD-ROM Software Patterns Software Tools Software License Appendix B Acronyms

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