1 Why are auditors needed? 2 An overview of the postulates and concepts of auditing 3 The meaning and importance of auditor independence: factors affecting independence and measures to attain it 4 Audit regulation 5 The risk-based approach to audit: audit judgement 6 The search for evidence explained 7 Systems work: basic ideas 1 8 Systems work: basic ideas 2 9 Testing and evaluating systems 10 Substantive testing, computer-assisted audit techniques and audit programmes 11 Sampling and materiality 12 Final work: general principles, analytical review of financial statements, non-current assets and trade receivables 13 Final work: specific problems related to inventories, construction contracts, trade payables and financial liabilities 14 Final review: post-balance sheet period, provisions, contingencies, letter of representation 15 Assurance engagements and internal audit 16 The auditors' report 17 Fraud and going concern 18 The audit expectations gap and audit quality 19 Corporate governance 20 The auditor and liability under the law 21 Issues in auditing 22 Examination hints and final remarks
Iain Gray acquired extensive practical auditing experience with PricewaterhouseCoopers in Germany and Italy. He was for many years Principal Lecturer and Head of Auditing at Sheffield Hallam University and is formerly Chair of the Auditing Special Interest Group of the British Accounting and Finance Association. Louise Crawford is Associate Dean, Research and Senior Lecturer of Accounting at the School of Business, University of Dundee. After working as a post-doctoral research scientist at St Andrews University, Louise trained with KPMG to become a Chartered Accountant with The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland, practicing predominantly in corporate audit. Stuart Manson is a member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland. He is presently a Professor of Accounting in Essex Business School at the University of Essex where he lectures on auditing and financial reporting. He has written a number of articles in academic journals and co-authored a number of research monographs in the areas of auditing and financial reporting.