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The Art and Science of Motivation


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Table of Contents

Dedication. Contents. List of Tables. List of Figures. List of Resources. List of Recollections. List of Boxes. Acknowledgements. Contributing Authors. Foreword by Professor Alan Hayes. Preface. 1. Understanding Motivation in the Context of Engaging Children in Therapy. Anne A. Poulsen, Post-Doctoral Researcher, University of Queensland, Australia, Jenny Ziviani, Professor of Children's Allied Health Research, University of Queensland, Australia and Monica Cuskelly, Associate Professor, School of Education, University of Queensland, Australia. Overview. Introducing the SCOPE-IT Model and the Macrotheory of Self-Determination. The Heart of the SCOPE-IT Model: Motivation. Three Basic Psychological Needs. Autonomy: "I have choices". Relatedness - "I am connected to others". Competence - "I can do things". Causality Orientations. Self-Determination Theory - The Motivation Continuum. Stage One: Amotivation. Stage Two: External Regulation. Stage Three: Introjected Regulation. Stage Four: Identified Regulation. Stage Five: Integrated Regulation. Stage Six: Intrinsic Motivation. Summary. 2. Children's Understanding of Purpose: A Matter of Choice. Monica Cuskelly, Associate Professor, School of Education, University of Queensland, Australia and Anne A. Poulsen, Post-Doctoral Researcher, University of Queensland, Australia. Overview. Self-Determined Behaviour. What constitutes autonomy? Why is it important to promote autonomy? What types of environment promote the development and use of autonomy-related self-determination skills? Autonomy-supportive therapeutic environments. Challenges to providing an autonomy-supportive service. Groups who may require particular consideration with respect to autonomy support. Children whose parents adopt a controlling style. Children with a disability. Adolescents. Children from different cultural backgrounds. Challenges for autonomy-supportive therapeutic practice. Assessment. Areas where consequences are serious. Child goals that are unrealistic or at odds with those of the therapist. Working with families. Structure in therapy. Prior experience of autonomy-supportive environments. Does the use of reinforcement undermine motivation in therapy? Summary. 3. Connecting: Nutriments from the Social Environment. Jenny Ziviani, Professor of Children's Allied Health Research, University of Queensland, Australia and Anne A. Poulsen, Post-Doctoral Researcher, University of Queensland, Australia. Overview. The Therapeutic Relationship. Spheres of Connection. Identifying Connections. Socio-environmental Influences. Family. School. Neighbourhoods and Community Organisations. Motivational Climates. Virtual Connections. Building Partnerships. Early Days in the Relationship: Setting Goals as a Collaborative Venture. The Ongoing Relationship. Working with Other Health Care Practitioners. Moving Forward. Practitioner Self-Care. Summary. 4. Achieving Success: Facilitating Skill Acquisition and Enabling Participation. Craig Greber, Occupational Therapy Clinical Education Officer, Nambour General Hospital, Queensland, Australia, Jim Hinojosa, Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, New York University, USA. Overview. Why is competence important? Defining competence. Children's perceptions of their own competence. Self-theories. Enhancing Self-perceptions of competence. Enhancing competence through skill acquisition. Teaching-learning strategies to support the development of competence. 5. Using Language to Motivate. Marilyn Kertoy, Associate Professor, School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Western Ontario, Canada and Anne A. Poulsen, Post-Doctoral Researcher, University of Queensland, Australia. Overview. How the therapist's language influences engagement. Getting started. Developing and strengthening the child-practitioner relationship through the use of language. Our language reveals more to others than we realize. Nonverbal messages used by practitioners. Verbal messages used by practitioners. Autonomy-enhancing language practices used by practitioners. Feedback and praise. Relatedness-enhancing language use by practitioners. Competence-enhancing language use by practitioners. Combining language and enabling strategies to address the three ARC components of need satisfaction throughout therapy. Children's language use in therapy. Developmental stages in the acquisition of children's language. Children's language and the Self-Determination Theory continuum. Amotivation. External Regulation. Introjected Regulation. Identified and Integrated Regulation. Intrinsic Motivation. Children's nonverbal messages. Summary. 6. Know the Child: Maximizing Engagement and Persistence in Therapy. Monica Cuskelly, Associate Professor, School of Education, University of Queensland, Australia and Gillian King, Senior Scientist, Bloorview Research Institute, Toronto, Canada. Overview. Engaging in therapy. What does engagement look like? The role of assessment in understanding the child/family. Child characteristics affecting engagement in therapy. Readiness for change. Self-awareness. Future time sense. Relationship with the therapist. Age and developmental status. Environmental factors affecting child engagement in therapy. Family environment. School and community environments. Therapist strategies to engage the child. Summary. 7. Structuring and Working with the Environment. Winnie Dunn, Professor and Chair, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Kansas Medical Centre, USA and Jenny Ziviani, Professor of Children's Allied Health Research, University of Queensland, Australia. Overview. Temporal environment. Children's experience of time. Physical settings. Sociocultural considerations. Environment and self-determination. Environmental intervention: A complex network of factors. Authentic settings, routines and generalization. Harnessing inherent environmental characteristics. Universal Design: Creating friendly and motivating environments for everyone. The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities. The design is easy to understand. The design communicates necessary information effectively. The design minimizes hazards and accidental or unintended actions. The design can be used efficiently and comfortably. Appropriate size and space is provided. Summary. 8. What Makes it Work? A Collaboration. Jonathan Crockett, Social Worker, South Brisbane, Australia, Moira Boyle, Occupational Therapist, Toowoomba, Australia and Jenny Ziviani, Professor of Children's Allied Health Research, University of Queensland, Australia. The Therapist's Voice. An individual journey. Meeting Jonathon and his family. Early days. Negotiating systems. A therapy focus based on psychological need support. Jonathon's voice. Where the rubber hit the road. Off to a "flying start" - negotiating the terrain. Beyond high school. What made this relationship work? Conclusion. References. Index.

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Evidence-based model for keeping children motivated to actively participate in the therapeutic process

About the Author

Jenny Ziviani is Professor of Children's Allied Health Research, a joint appointment between the University of Queensland, Australia, and Queensland Health. She previously worked as an occupational therapist, academic and allied health researcher. She has an extensive publication record, and has been commended by the Australian Association of Occupational Therapists for excellence in research. Anne A. Poulsen is a Post-Doctoral Researcher in the School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences at the University of Queensland. Her research focuses on motivation, self-concept and life satisfaction. Monica Cuskelly is Associate Professor in the School of Education at the University of Queensland. She previously worked as a psychologist, initially in clinical roles and later as an educational psychologist. Her research focuses on cognitive development, mastery, motivation and self-regulation in vulnerable populations, particularly individuals with learning disabilities, and on the experiences of families with a child with a disability.


The key theory and model that underpin the entire book are: Self Determination Theory (SDT) and The Synthesis of Child Occupational Performance and Environment-In Time (SCOPE-IT)... Many practitioners may have used principles of the SDT and SCOPE-IT without knowing it. Both the theory and model are explained in great detail with clear references to research and best practice. The book will help practitioners look afresh at key factors in creating and working in a therapeutic relationship. -- Child and Adolescent Mental Health
The book is excellently laid out and highly accessible. Theory, practice, personal experience and referencing is seamlessly interwoven...This book for professionals who work therapeutically with children and their families. It is especially useful for those who are looking to extend their skills to take account of the diversity of both the nature of their work and their client groups, and to consider perhaps a different framework for the evaluation of their interventions and reflections of their practice. -- Debate
I congratulate the editors and their authors on producing an impressive, timely volume that addresses a key set of challenges confronting clinicians. They skilfully highlight the motivational factors that do make a difference to outcome...I found myself captive to the "flow" of ideas fuelling my intrinsic motivation to read on! I am confident that others will be similarly captured! -- Professor Alan Hayes, Director of the Australian Institute for Family Studies
This book is a breath of fresh air, bringing together concepts grounded in motivational research but clearly demonstrating how they can be used by the practitioner in everyday practice. It should be a standard text for all therapists who want to ensure that the child's views and goals are always at the centre of interventional approaches. -- Professor Amanda Kirby, The Dyscovery Centre, University of Wales

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