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Archaeology and Geomatics
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Digital technologies have numerous applications in archaeology ranging from the documentation of the archaeological evidence and the analysis of research data to the presentation of results for a wider audience. This volume consists of various studies on the use of methods such as LiDAR (light detection and ranging), archaeological prospection, visibility, mobility and the analysis of the spatial distribution of archaeological objects, applied in various contexts. The case studies vary widely and include the Late Pleistocene in the Northern Iberian Peninsula, the Roman Republican period in Southern Italy, the Formative period in the Andes and the 1936-39 Spanish Civil War. In 2005 a (then) pioneering postgraduate course on the applicability of digital geospatial technologies for archaeology was launched in Spain. Quite unexpectedly, the course has been alive annually for more than 10 years so far, having trained around 300 young archaeologists from Spain, Portugal, and Latin America in the critical use of nowadays popular tools such as GIS, GPS, remote sensing and LiDAR for the documentation and analysis of the archaeological record. To commemorate the first 10 years of the course, a conference was organized in Merida (Spain) in October 2015. Former students were invited to present and discuss their research in which these technologies were used intensively; this edited book is a selection of those contributions. Through a series of widely varying case-studies, both technically sophisticated and theoretically informed applications of such digital technologies are presented. All the contributors are young researchers, either young doctors or doctorate students, coming from fairly varied archaeological contexts and approaches.
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Table of Contents

Introduction Unboxing the black box. Lessons learnt from ten years of teaching geospatial technologies to archaeologists. by Victorino Mayoral Herrera, Cesar Parcero-Oubina and Pastor Fabrega-Alvarez Section 1. Shapes and locations. Documenting and characterizing the archaeological record Pursuing ancient rural life through surface survey: composition and diversity of artifact distributions. by Luis Antonio Sevillano Perea Experiments on Roman surface scatters through digital survey methods: study cases from Odra-Pisuerga region, (Burgos, Spain). by Jesus Garcia Sanchez Scope and limitations of airborne LiDAR technology for the detection and analysis of Roman military settlements in Northwest Iberia. by Jose Manuel Costa Garcia and Joao Fonte Making Visible the Invisible: Low Cost Methodologies for the Study of Ancient Carvings. by Miguel Carrero-Pazos, Benito Vilas-Estevez and Alia Vazquez-Martinez Section 2. Tools and methods. Procedural approaches Methods for the evaluation of the visualization of archaeological sites by Pablo Paniego Diaz Landscapes on the move. Digitally exploring the relationship between megaliths and mobility in Northern Caceres (Spain). by Jose M. Senoran Martin The answer is blowing in the wind: a method to measure wind-protection as a criterion for settlement in the past. by Marcos Garcia Garcia Section 3. Patterns, behaviour, decisions. Analysing the archaeological evidence Application of GIS to flint management studies during the Pleistocene to Holocene transition: the case of Baltzola (Dima, Bizkaia, Spain). by Maite Garcia-Rojas, Alejandro Prieto, Aitor Sanchez, Cristina Camarero and Lydia Zapata The Archaeology of Rock Art as Archaeology of the Mediterranean Landscape. by Maria Sebatian Lopez Building landscapes: a landform approach for the Iron Age sites in the Upper Duero River. by Raquel Liceras-Garrido, Enrique Cerrillo-Cuenca and Alfredo Jimeno-Martinez GIS contribution to the analysis of the distribution of Roman caves between the Ebro River and the Pyrenees. by Leticia Tobalina Pulido, Benoit Pace and Alain Campo The potential of the Geographic Information Techniques for the analysis of the morphology and settlement patterns of the Roman military sites of early imperial era in Iberia. by Jose Manuel Costa-Garcia Centering Tafi: A political approach to the landscape of a Southern Andes Formative community. by Jordi A. Lopez Lillo Landscapes of War. GIS applications in the study of the Spanish Civil War. by Manuel Antonio Franco Fernandez and Pedro Rodriguez Simon Section 4. Archaeology and the public. Disseminating to a wider audience Geographic Information Systems: an effective tool for the management of the Cultural Heritage of Cantabria. by Gustavo Sanz Palomera A map for Gondar. Cartographic system for the touristic development of the Amhara Region (Ethiopia) by Cristina Charro Lobato, Eduardo Martin Agundez and Agustin Cabria Ramos Discussion and comments by Martijn van Leusen

About the Author

Dr. Victorino Mayoral Herrera (Madrid, 1970; PhD, 2001, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain). Staff Scientist at the Instituto de Arqueologia-Merida (Merida Institute of Archaeology) (IAM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Spanish National Research Council) (CSIC) in Spain. Before joining the IAM, he developed his career at the Complutense University of Madrid and in the Heritage Administration of the Autonomous Region of Extremadura. His research has been mainly concerned with an archaeological approach to the study of landscape, with two main vectors. On the one hand, a historical analysis focused on the transition between indigenous cultures and the Roman rule in the Mediterranean, without neglecting the longue duree nature of this kind of research. On the other hand, in methodological terms his efforts have been mainly devoted to the exploration of the potential of non-invasive methods like remote sensing, aerial, geophysical, and especially surface survey with the support of geospatial technologies. Victorino has conducted multiple research projects in Spain. He has authored, among others, Paisajes Agrarios y cambios social en Andalucia Oriental entre los periodos iberico y romano (2004), Arqueologia del trabajo. El ciclo de la vida en un poblado iberico (2007), and co-edited collective works like Tecnologias de informacion geografica y analisis arqueologico del territorio. Actas del V Simposio Internacional de Arqueologia de Merida (2011) and La revalorizacion de zonas arqueologicas mediante el empleo de tecnicas no destructivas (2016). Dr. Cesar Parcero-Oubina (Santiago de Compostela, 1969; PhD, 2001, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain). Staff Scientist at the Instituto de Ciencias del Patrimonio (Institute of Heritage Sciences) (Incipit), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Spanish National Research Council) (CSIC) in Spain. Before joining the Incipit, he developed his career at the University of Santiago de Compostela. His research has mainly been concerned with landscape archaeology and has focused on the analysis of the productive, social and political dimensions of later prehistoric societies (the Iron Age in Western Europe, and now the later pre-Hispanic context in South America). He is also interested in the application of geospatial technologies for both archaeology and the wider field of Cultural Heritage. He has carried out fieldwork in Spain, Uruguay and Chile, and collaborated in projects in Ethiopia and Mongolia. Cesar has authored, among others, La construccion del paisaje social en la Edad del Hierro del Noroeste Iberico (2002) and co-edited A data model for Cultural Heritage within INSPIRE (2014) and Atlas Arqueoloxico da Paisaxe Galega (2016). He is currently Project Officer of the Archaeolandscapes International association and member of the Spanish Spatial Data Infrastructures Working Group. Pastor Fabrega-Alvarez (Ourense, 1978; MA, 2003, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain). Technical staff member at the Instituto de Ciencias del Patrimonio (Institute of Heritage Sciences) (Incipit), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Spanish National Research Council) (CSIC) in Spain. His fields of interest are the design of methodologies for analyzing and managing archaeological heritage from a geographic and landscape perspective. More specifically, his work is focused on the use of geospatial technologies such as GIS, Remote Sensing and 3D representation techniques for the analysis of the archaeological record. Recently, he has been involved in projects like SPATRIAL and CHARM, which aim to develop conceptual and spatial models of cultural heritage. He has been member of the Spanish Spatial Data Infraestructures Working Group. He has also participated in projects and initiatives related to the archaeological study of ancient landscapes, such as ArchaeoLandscapes Europe and Agriculture and Empire in the High Altitude Atacama Desert (Chile) On all those subjects he has published different contributions in books, conference proceedings and papers in national and international scientific journals.

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