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Foreword by Raymie Stata xiii Foreword by Paul Dix xv Preface xvii Acknowledgments xxi About the Authors xxv Chapter 1: Apache Hadoop YARN: A Brief History and Rationale 1 Introduction 1 Apache Hadoop 2 Phase 0: The Era of Ad Hoc Clusters 3 Phase 1: Hadoop on Demand 3 Phase 2: Dawn of the Shared Compute Clusters 9 Phase 3: Emergence of YARN 18 Conclusion 20 Chapter 2: Apache Hadoop YARN Install Quick Start 21 Getting Started 22 Steps to Configure a Single-Node YARN Cluster 22 Run Sample MapReduce Examples 30 Wrap-up 31 Chapter 3: Apache Hadoop YARN Core Concepts 33 Beyond MapReduce 33 Apache Hadoop MapReduce 35 Apache Hadoop YARN 38 YARN Components 39 Wrap-up 42 Chapter 4: Functional Overview of YARN Components 43 Architecture Overview 43 ResourceManager 45 YARN Scheduling Components 46 Containers 49 NodeManager 49 ApplicationMaster 50 YARN Resource Model 50 Managing Application Dependencies 53 Wrap-up 57 Chapter 5: Installing Apache Hadoop YARN 59 The Basics 59 System Preparation 60 Script-based Installation of Hadoop 2 62 Script-based Uninstall 68 Configuration File Processing 68 Configuration File Settings 68 Start-up Scripts 71 Installing Hadoop with Apache Ambari 71 Wrap-up 84 Chapter 6: Apache Hadoop YARN Administration 85 Script-based Configuration 85 Monitoring Cluster Health: Nagios 90 Real-time Monitoring: Ganglia 97 Administration with Ambari 99 JVM Analysis 103 Basic YARN Administration 106 Wrap-up 114 Chapter 7: Apache Hadoop YARN Architecture Guide 115 Overview 115 ResourceManager 117 NodeManager 127 ApplicationMaster 138 YARN Containers 148 Summary for Application-writers 150 Wrap-up 151 Chapter 8: Capacity Scheduler in YARN 153 Introduction to the Capacity Scheduler 153 Capacity Scheduler Configuration 155 Queues 156 Hierarchical Queues 156 Queue Access Control 159 Capacity Management with Queues 160 User Limits 163 Reservations 166 State of the Queues 167 Limits on Applications 168 User Interface 169 Wrap-up 169 Chapter 9: MapReduce with Apache Hadoop YARN 171 Running Hadoop YARN MapReduce Examples 171 MapReduce Compatibility 181 The MapReduce ApplicationMaster 181 Calculating the Capacity of a Node 182 Changes to the Shuffle Service 184 Running Existing Hadoop Version 1 Applications 184 Running MapReduce Version 1 Existing Code 187 Advanced Features 188 Wrap-up 190 Chapter 10: Apache Hadoop YARN Application Example 191 The YARN Client 191 The ApplicationMaster 208 Wrap-up 226 Chapter 11: Using Apache Hadoop YARN Distributed-Shell 227 Using the YARN Distributed-Shell 227 Internals of the Distributed-Shell 232 Wrap-up 240 Chapter 12: Apache Hadoop YARN Frameworks 241 Distributed-Shell 241 Hadoop MapReduce 241 Apache Tez 242 Apache Giraph 242 Hoya: HBase on YARN 243 Dryad on YARN 243 Apache Spark 244 Apache Storm 244 REEF: Retainable Evaluator Execution Framework 245 Hamster: Hadoop and MPI on the Same Cluster 245 Wrap-up 245 Appendix A: Supplemental Content and Code Downloads 247 Available Downloads 247 Appendix B: YARN Installation Scripts 249 install-hadoop2.sh 249 uninstall-hadoop2.sh 256 hadoop-xml-conf.sh 258 Appendix C: YARN Administration Scripts 263 configure-hadoop2.sh 263 Appendix D: Nagios Modules 269 check_resource_manager.sh 269 check_data_node.sh 271 check_resource_manager_old_space_pct.sh 272 Appendix E: Resources and Additional Information 277 Appendix F: HDFS Quick Reference 279 Quick Command Reference 279 Index 287
Arun Murthy has contributed to Apache Hadoop full-time since the inception of the project in early 2006. He is a long-term Hadoop committer and a member of the Apache Hadoop Project Management Committee. Previously, he was the architect and lead of the Yahoo Hadoop MapReduce development team and was ultimately responsible, technically, for providing Hadoop MapReduce as a service for all of Yahoo--currently running on nearly 50,000 machines. Arun is the founder and architect of the Hortonworks Inc., a software company that is helping to accelerate the development and adoption of Apache Hadoop. Hortonworks was formed by the key architects and core Hadoop committers from the Yahoo! Hadoop software engineering team in June 2011. Funded by Yahoo! and Benchmark Capital, one of the preeminent technology investors, their goal is to ensure that Apache Hadoop becomes the standard platform for storing, processing, managing, and analyzing big data. Vinod Kumar Vavilapalli has been contributing to Apache Hadoop project full-time since mid-2007. At Apache Software Foundation, he is a long-term Hadoop contributor, Hadoop committer, member of the Apache Hadoop Project Management Committee, and a foundation member. Vinod is a MapReduce and YARN go-to guy at Hortonworks Inc. For more than five years, he has been working on Hadoop. He was involved in HadoopOnDemand, Hadoop-0.20, CapacityScheduler, Hadoop security, and MapReduce, and is now a lead developer and the project lead for Apache Hadoop YARN. Before Hortonworks, he was at Yahoo!, working in the Grid team that made Hadoop what it is today, running at large scale--up to tens of thousands of nodes. Vinod loves reading books of all kinds and is passionate about using computers to change the world for better, bit by bit. He has a bachelor's degree in computer science and engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. He can be reached at twitter handle @tshooter. Douglas Eadline, Ph.D., began his career as a practitioner and a chronicler of the Linux Cluster HPC revolution and now documents big data analytics. Starting with the first Beowulf How To document, Doug has written hundreds of articles, white papers, and instructional documents covering virtually all aspects of HPC computing. Prior to starting and editing the popular ClusterMonkey.net website in 2005, he served as editor -in- chief for ClusterWorld magazine, and was senior HPC editor for Linux Magazine. Currently, he is a consultant to the HPC industry and writes a monthly column in HPC Admin magazine. Both clients and readers have recognized Doug's ability to present a "technological value proposition" in a clear and accurate style. He has practical, hands-on experience in many aspects of HPC, including hardware and software design, benchmarking, storage, GPU, cloud, and parallel computing. He is the author of Hadoop Fundamentals LiveLessons (video) from Addison-Wesley. Joseph Niemiec is a big data solutions engineer whose focus is on designing Hadoop solutions for many Fortune 1000 companies. In this position, Joseph has worked with customers to build multiple YARN applications providing a unique perspective on moving customers beyond batch processing, and has worked on YARN development directly. An avid technologist, Joseph has been focused on technology innovations since 2001. His interest in data analytics originally started in game score optimization as a teenager, and has shifted to helping customers uptake new technology innovations such as Hadoop and, most recently, building new data applications using YARN. Jeff Markham is a solution engineer at Hortonworks Inc., the company promoting open source Hadoop. Previously, he was with VMware, Red Hat, and IBM, helping companies build distributed applications with distributed data. He has written articles on Java application development and has spoken at several conferences and to Hadoop User Groups. Jeff is a contributor to Apache Pig and Apache HDFS.
" This book is a desperately needed resource for administrators, developers, and power-users of the Hadoop YARN framework. It does an excellent job of documenting the (often unknown) history that inevitably lead up to YARN from previous versions of Hadoop, which provides a valuable canvas against which to present the remaining pragmatically-oriented text. Moving from the history of YARN, it wisely jumps right into getting the reader up and running with their own YARN setup (on a single machine or on a larger cluster) such that the rest of the text is not merely conjecturing, but real guidance for a real instance of YARN. Chapters 7 and 8 were the ones I was most looking forward to in the text from the start, as those "core" components of YARN are some of the ones which are least understood and yet concurrently most impacting on performance. They did not disappoint." - Ellis H. Wilson III, Storage Scientist