Introduction 6 Part One The Rise and Fall of Rome 8 The Archetypal Empire 10 Timeline 14 Rome: The World's First Superpower 18 Chapter I: An Empire of Force and Law 20 Legendary Beginnings 22 The Conquest of Italy 24 The Growth of Empire 26 Victory Abroad, Discord at Home 28 The End of the Republic 30 Peace Restored: The First Emperors 32 The Flavians and "The Five Good Emperors" 34 Crisis and Catastrophe 36 Reconstruction and Revival 38 The Fall of the West 40 Chapter II: Great Romans 42 Great Roman Generals 44 Julius Caesar 48 Pompey 50 Mark Antony 51 The Historians' View 52 Roman Philosophers 54 Rome's Enemies 56 Cicero: The Peaceful Roman 60 Chapter III: The Emperors 62 Emperors of Rome 64 Augustus: The First Roman Emperor 66 Organizers of Empire 68 Best of Emperors 70 Evil Emperors 72 Saviours of the Empire 76 Constantine the Great 80 Women Behind the Throne 82 Chapter IV: Governing the Empire 84 A Self-governing Confederacy 86 The Oligarchical Republic 88 Rome's Ruling Classes 90 The Secret Workings of Roman Politics 94 The Principate: A Monarchy in Disguise 96 Republican Extortion, Imperial Probity 98 Taxation 100 Chapter V: Rome and the Law 102 Law in the Early Republic 104 How the Laws Worked in Times of Crisis 106 The Great Imperial Codifications 108 Police and Secret Police 110 Punishment 112 Chapter VI: Foreign Policy 114 Early Beginnings: The Conquest of Italy 116 Ruler by Default 118 Defensible Frontiers: The Rhine and the Danube 120 Defensible Frontiers: Asia 122 Client and Buffer States 124 Reliance on the Germans 126 At the Empire's Extremities: Egypt 128 At the Empire's Extremities: Britain 130 the power of rome 132 Chapter VII: The Roman Army 134 The People's Army 136 Battle Hardening 138 The Fall of the Republic 140 Legions and Principate 142 Army of the Later Empire 144 Chapter VIII: Inside the Army 146 Organizing the Legion 148 Centurions and Officers 150 Training and Discipline 152 Pay and Conditions 154 Auxiliary Troops 156 Pitching Camp 158 Roads, Canals and Bridges 160 Fleets and Ships 162 Chapter IX: Arms and the Men 164 Armour 166 Arms 168 Artillery 170 Siege Warfare 172 Triumphs and Ovations 174 Permanent Fortifications 176 Great Forts of the Later Empire 178 City Walls 180 Chapter X: The Great Wars 182 Marching and Fighting 184 The Punic Wars 186 Conquering the Greeks 188 Caesar's Conquest of Gaul 190 The Last Civil Wars 192 Along the Elbe 194 Conquest of Lowland Britain 196 Agricola's Northern Campaigns 198 Trajan's Campaigns 200 Chapter XI: Defending the Empire 204 The Dilemmas of Defence 206 Natural Frontiers 208 Colonies and Settlements 214 The Jewish Revolt 216 Siege of Masada 218 Chapter XII: Decline and Fall 220 The 3rd-century Crisis 222 The Eastern Problem 224 Foreign Invasions 226 Loss and Recapture of the East 228 The Splintering Empire 230 The First Recovery 232 The Tetrarchs' Achievements 234 Constantine 236 Constantine's Heirs 238 Britain Regained and Abandoned 240 The Gothic Problem 242 The Fatal Winter 244 The Sack of Rome 246 The Fall of Rome 248 Why Rome Fell 250 Part Two The Roman World 254 Rome's Enduring Legacy 256 Timeline 260 Rome: the first world city 264 Chapter XIII: Building the City of Rome 266 Building Early Rome 268 The Later Republic 270 Augustus and his Heirs 272 Nero and the Flavians 274 Trajan and Hadrian 276 Rome in the Later Empire 278 Rome - The Christian City 280 Chapter XIV: Building Techniques and Styles 282 Building Materials 284 Vaults, Arches, Domes 286 Building Practices and Techniques 288 Architectural Styles and Language 290 Chapter XV: Public Buildings 292 The Forum Romanum 294 The Imperial Forum 296 Rome's Basilicas and the Senate House 298 Temples: The Republic and the Early Principate 300 Temples: The Pantheon and After 302 Building the Theatres 304 Amphitheatres and the Colosseum 306 Aqueducts and Sewers 310 Imperial Baths 312 Circuses 316 Triumphal Arches 318 Triumphal Columns 320 Churches 322 Chapter XVI: Imperial Palaces 324 The Palaces of Augustus and his Heirs 326 Nero's Golden Palace 328 The Palatine: Palace of the Emperors 330 Chapter XVII: Housing for Rich and Poor 334 The Domus: Houses of the Rich 336 Insulae: The First Apartments 338 Tiberius' Villa at Capri 340 Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli 342 Villas of the Rich in Italy 346 Piazza Armerina 348 Diocletian's Palace at Split 350 Villas of the Empire: British Villas 352 Chapter XVIII: Cities of the Empire 354 Pompeii and Herculaneum 356 Ostia and Portus 360 Contrasting Cities: Carthage and Timgad 362 Lepcis Magna: An Emperor's Birthplace 364 Athens: A Glorious Past 366 Trier: The Rome of the North 368 Ephesus: Wonder of the World 370 Vanished Cities of the East 372 Nimes and Arles: Cities of Gaul 374 Romano-British Cities 376 Roman arts and society 378 Chapter XIX: Literature 380 The First Roman Writers 382 Augustus' Poets Laureate 384 Catullus and the Elegiac Poets 386 Ovid and Later Silver Age Poets 388 Great Prose Writers 390 Novelists and Satirists 392 Late Roman Writers 394 Literature and Literacy 396 Chapter XX: The Arts 398 The Etruscans and the Early Republic 400 Art in the Later Republic 402 Augustus and the Classical Revival 404 The Roman Zenith 406 Hadrian and the Greek Revival 408 Art of the Later Empire 410 Furniture 412 Chapter XXI: Religion and Mythology 414 The Capitoline Gods 416 Venus, Vulcan and Other Gods 420 Emperor Worship and the Goddess Roma 422 Bacchus and Cybele 424 New Gods from the East 426 Cult of the Sun 428 Christianity: Tribulation to Triumph 430 Chapter XXII: Sport and Games 432 Gladiatorial Combats 434 The Great Games 436 Wild Beast Games 438 At the Circus: Chariot Races 440 At the Theatre: Farce, Mime and Pantomime 442 Games and Exercises 444 Chapter XXIII: Science, Technology & the Economy 446 Strabo and Graeco-Roman Geography 448 Astronomy 450 Water Mills 452 Steam Engines 454 Medical Principles and Practice 456 Perils of Urban Life: Plagues, Flood and Fire 458 Trade, Ships and Navigation 460 Passages to India 462 Farming 464 Chapter XXIV: People of Rome 466 Marriage, Divorce and the Power of the Father 468 Roman Women 470 Children: Education and Upbringing 472 Slaves and Freedmen 474 Aspects of Slavery 476 Business and Commerce 478 Leisure and Holidays 480 Dinner Parties 482 Food for Rich and Poor 484 Wine and Vineyards 486 Rome the Great Consumer 488 Tunics and Togas 490 Hairstyles and Cosmetics 492 Erotic Love 494 Funerals and the Afterlife 496 Index 500 Acknowledgements 510
Nigel Rodgers, who has a degree in history and art history from Cambridge University, has written widely on history, philosophy and art. Among his published works are Ancient Greece: An Illustrated History (also published by Lorenz Books). Hazel Dodge FSA is Louis Claude Purser Senior Lecturer in Classical Archaeology at the School of Classics, Trinity College, Dublin. Her research covers all aspects of Roman construction and building technology. Her other published works include Marble in Antiquity (British School at Rome) and Ancient Rome - The Archaeology of the Eternal City (Oxford University Press). With Peter Connolly, she is the author of The Ancient City - Life in Classical Athens and Rome.