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Contents Preface xxxx A Note on Names, Pronunciations, and Conventions xxxx Introduction 1 Discovery and Conquest by Europeans The Fate of the Maya Heritage The Meaning of Maya Civilization Foreign Domination and Rebirth of the Maya Heritage The Destruction of the Maya Heritage Bibliographic Summary 1. The Setting of Maya Civilization Natural and Cultural Subdivisions of the Maya Area The Pacific Coastal Plain The Highlands The Southern Maya Highlands The Northern Maya Highlands The Lowlands The Southern Lowlands The Central Lowlands The Northern Lowlands The Consequences of Ecological Diversity Sidebars : Origin of Mayan Languages, The Original Maya Homeland, Cacao, Stone Tools, Jade, Feathers, Eccentric Flints, Textiles. Bibliographic Summary 2. Archaeology and Maya Civilization Reconstructing the Past Changing Perspectives on the Maya Past Etic and Emic Views of the Past Perspective and Goals of this Book Basic Concepts Models of Past Societies Development of Complex Society and Civilization The Evolution of Civilization Understanding the Evolution of Maya Civilization The Maya Economy Subsistence and Population Growth Specialization and Trade Economic Distinctions Social and Political Systems Social Stratification Polities and Kings Competition and Warfare Maya Ideology and Religion The Ancient Maya World Elite and Non-elite Views of the Ancient Maya Chronology Bibliographic Summary Sidebars: Pottery and Archaeology, Maya Archaeological Projects (Copan, Chichen Itza, Uaxactun, Tikal, Mayapan, Barton Ramie). Chapter 3: History and Maya Civilization Time and Maya History Arithmetic The Calendar The Almanac of 260 Days The Haab of 365 Days The Calendar Round of 52 Years The Long Count Distance Numbers Period-Ending Dates and Count of the K'atuns Measuring the Cycles of Time The Sun and Moon Venus Other Planets, the Stars and the Constellations Recording the Cycles of Time Sources of Maya History The Maya Chronicles Ancient Writing Systems PreColumbian Maya Texts The Maya Codices The Maya Inscriptions The Language of the Classic Maya texts Ancient Maya Writing The Discovery of Maya History The Discovery of Phoneticism in Maya Writing Milestones in Decipherment Contributions to Understanding the Ancient Maya History and Maya Civilization Bibliographic Summary Sidebars: Year Bearers, Correlation of the Maya Calendar, Mayan Dictionaries and Literature, The Structure of Mayan Languages, Classic Maya Texts, Pioneers of Decipherment. Chapter 4: The Origins of Maya Civilization The Chronology of Pre-Columbian Development The Archaic: Origins of Highland and Coastal Cultural Traditions The Early Preclassic: Agriculture, Warfare, and Evidence of Complex Society Preclassic Developments on the Gulf Coast of Mexico Preclassic Developments in Highland Mexico Summary of Archaic and Early Preclassic Developments Patterns in the Evolution of Mesoamerican Civilization Bibliographic Summary Sidebars: Early Preclassic Maya Pottery, Monumental Architecture, Origins of Carved Monuments. Chapter 5: The Emergence of Civilization in the Middle Preclassic The Emergence of Complex Societies Markers of Complex Societies The Pacific Plain in the Middle Preclassic Middle Preclassic Commodities and Monuments The Highlands in the Middle Preclassic The Lowlands in the Middle Preclassic Middle Preclassic Communities The Rise of Complex Society in the Lowlands Further Middle Preclassic Developments in the Lowlands Summary: The Middle Preclassic Precursors of Maya Civilization Bibliographic Summary Sidebars: Mirrors and Mosaics, Middle Preclassic Maya Pottery, Maya Monuments and Sculpture; La Blanca, Chalchuapa, Kaminaljuyu, Salama Valley, Cuello, K'axob, Nakbe, Ball Courts, Masonry Architecture Chapter 6: The Origins of Maya States in the Late Preclassic Late Preclassic Civilization and Writing Traditions The Late Preclassic Isthmian Tradition The Late Preclassic Southern Maya Southern Maya Pottery and Monument Traditions Late Preclassic Rulers in the Southern Maya Area Late Preclassic Civilization in the Southern Maya Area Highland-Lowland Interaction in the Preclassic The Maya Lowlands in the Late Preclassic Regional Hegemony in the Central Lowlands Late Preclassic Rulers in the Maya Lowlands Patterns of Late Preclassic Rulership Preclassic Developments in the Northern Lowlands Late Preclassic Lowland Maya Civilization Decline in the Terminal Preclassic Summary: Reconstructing the Maya Preclassic Bibliographic Summary Sidebars: Izapa, El Ujuxte, Abaj Takalik, Late Preclassic Maya Pottery, El Mirador, San Bartolo, Cerros, Komchen. Chapter 7: The Expansion of Maya States in the Early Classic The Early Classic and the Origins of Maya Civilization The Southern Maya Area in the Classic Period Early Classic Changes on the Pacific Coast Early Classic Changes in the Highlands Teotihuacan and the Maya The End of Teotihuacan Contacts in the Southern Maya Area The Classic Transition in the Lowlands The Expansion of States in the Maya Lowlands Divine Kings and Royal Houses Titles and Emblems of Royal Power Competition and Warfare in the Classic Lowlands The Early Classic in the Maya Lowlands The Rise of Tikal in the Early Classic (ca. 100-378) Neighboring Centers in the Central Lowlands (ca. 328-416) Strangers in the Lowlands (378-456) Expansion into the Southeastern Area (406-437) Archaeology, History, and Copan's Dynastic Founding (ca. 400-470) The Founder of Quirigua The Rise of the Calakmul Dynasty (435-561) The Calakmul-Caracol Alliance Prosperity and Problems at Tikal (458-562) The Defeat of Tikal (562) Summary: The Early Classic States of the Maya Lowlands Bibliographic Summary Sidebars: Early Classic Maya Pottery, Tikal, Uaxactun, Rio Azul, Copan, Quirigua, Calakmul, Caracol, Becan, Nakum, Yaxha. Chapter 8: The Apogee of Maya States in the Late Classic Ascendancy of Calakmul (562-695) Confrontation in the Petexbatun The Naranjo Wars The Resurgence of Tikal (682-768) Defeat of Calakmul (695) Breaking of the Calakmul Alliance Rise and Fall of the Petexbatun Kingdom (682-802) The End of the Calakmul Dynasty (695-909) Recovery and Decline at Caracol (798-859) The End of the Tikal Dynasty (768-869) Expansion of the Usumacinta Polities Birth and Rebirth of the Piedras Negras Dynasty History and Propaganda at Yaxchilan Expansion of the Western Polities Origins of the Palenque Dynasty Apogee and Defeat at Palenque Recovery and Decline at Palenque Late Classic Apogee at Tonina Expansion of the Southeastern Polities Growth and Prosperity at Copan A Tale of Two Cities Revitalization and Decline at Copan The Last Days of Quirigua Summary: Development of States in the Late Classic Lowlands Bibliographic Summary Sidebars: Late Classic Maya Pottery, Naranjo, Dos Pilas, Aguateca, Altar De Sacrificios, Piedras Negras, Yaxchilan, Bonampak, Palenque, Tonina, Cities Without History. Chapter 9: Transformations in the Terminal Classic Decline in the Classic Heartland Patterns of Change The Collapse Issue The Collapse of Classic Maya States Explanations for the Collapse Theories Emphasizing Catastrophic Events Theories Emphasizing Problems within Maya Society Theories Emphasizing Foreign Intervention Theories Emphasizing Environmental Changes A Scenario for the Collapse of the Classic Maya States Overpopulation Warfare Drought The Breakup of Classic Polities Abandonment and Migration Survival and Revival of Classic Enclaves Transformation in the Terminal Classic The Fate of Divine Kings The New Lowland Economy The New Power Brokers The Transitional Regional Traditions The Rise of the Northern Lowland Polities Polities in Northwestern Yucatan The Puuc Region Salt production and Trade Polities in Northeastern Yucatan The Rise of Chichen Itza The Itza Economy The Itza State The Cult of K'uk'ulkan Changes in the Southern Maya Area Summary: Culmination and Transition in the Terminal Classic Bibliographic Summary Sidebars: Terminal Classic Maya Pottery, Xunantunich, Seibal, Uxmal, Sayil, Kabah, Dzibilchaltun, Coba, Chichen Itza, Metalwork. Chapter 10: Reformulation and Revival in the Postclassic The Downfall of Chichen Itza The Rise of Mayapan The Mayapan State The Fall of Mayapan and the Rise of Petty States The East Coast of Yucatan Revival of Fortunes in the Central Lowlands The Southern Maya Area in the Postclassic Summary: Reformulation and Revival in the Postclassic Overview: Changing Perspectives on Maya Civilization Bibliographic Summary Sidebars: Postclassic Maya Pottery, Mayapan, Tulum, Santa Rita Corozal, The Mythical City of Tollan. Chapter 11: The Ancient Maya Economy The Political Economy The Social Economy Mobilization of Labor Ancient Maya Subsistence Hunting and Gathering Animal Husbandry Extensive Agriculture Intensive Agriculture Reconstructing the Patterns of Subsistence Production of Goods Distribution of Goods The Importance of Trade Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Long-Distance Trade Bibliographic Summary Sidebar: The Swidden Hypothesis; Colha. Chapter 12: The Organization of Maya Society Reconstructing The Social Landscape Maya Society in the Pre-Columbian Era Personal Appearance Birth and Early Childhood Puberty Life and Death Marriage and the Family Ancient Maya Households Settlement in the Maya Lowlands Chronological Control Population Reconstructions Social Stratification Residential and Descent Groups Residential Groups and the House Model Reconstructing The Political Landscape Divine Kings and the Hierarchy of Power Hierarchy within Polities Hierarchy among Polities Maya Polities Location and Power Size and Power Number and Size of Polities Cycles of Growth and Decline State Organizational Models The Basis of Political Power Bibliographic Summary Sidebars: Ceren, Maya Society In Postclassic Yucatan, Maya Society in the Postclassic Highlands. Chapter 13: Maya Ideology and Religion Maya World View Origins of Maya Ideology Transformations by Outsiders Cosmology Creation Myths The Maya Universe Afterlife and Ancestors Maya Deities Rituals and Ceremonies Royal Rituals of the Classic Period Rituals of the Postclassic and Conquest Periods Divination and Altered Consciousness Human Sacrifice The Thirteen K'atun Endings Other Calendrical Ceremonies The Ideological Foundations of Maya civilization Bibliographic Summary Epilogue: The Conquest of the Maya Appendix: Dates For K'atun and Half-K'atun Endings Reference Material Bibliography Illustration Credits Index Tables Table 2.1 Chiefdoms and States Table 2.2 Pre-Columbian Chronological Periods in the Maya Area Table 3.1 Yucatec Mayan Sounds and Transcriptions Table 3.2 Names of Maya Rulers Table 7.1 Dynastic Chronology of Tikal Table 7.2 Dynastic Chronology of Copan Table 7.3 Dynastic Chronology of Calakmul Table 7.4 Dynastic Chronology of Caracol Table 8.1 Dynastic Chronology of Naranjo Table 8.2 Dynastic Chronology of Dos Pilas Table 8.3 Dynastic Chronology of Piedras Negras Table 8.4 Dynastic Chronology of Yaxchilan Table 8.5 Dynastic Chronology of Palenque Table 8.6 Dynastic Chronology of Tonina Table 8.7 Dynastic Chronology of Quirigua Table 10.1 Dynastic History of the Postclassic K'iche Maya Table 11.1 Common Wild Animal Resources Table 11.2 Common Plant Cultigens Table 11.3 Production and Distribution in the Ancient Maya Economy Table 11.4 Distribution Modes in the Maya Economy (Lowlands) Table 11.5 Principal Trade Goods from the Maya Area Table 11.6 Goods Traded to or through the Maya Area Table 12.1 Density of Structures (Selected Lowland Sites) Table 12.2 Late Classic Density of Structures (Selected Lowland Sites and Rural Areas) Table 12.3 Population Estimates (Selected Lowland Sites and Rural Areas) Table 12.4 Relative Population Size as Percentage of Maximum Population Estimates at Selected Lowland Sites Table 12.5 Relative Population Size as Percentage of Maximum Population Estimates at Selected Rural Areas Table E.1 Summary of Events of the Spanish Conquest Period Table A.1 Correlation of Maya and Gregorian Chronologies Figures Frontispiece: Copan Maize god Introduction In.1. The principal buildings of Tikal, Guatemala In.2 Temple IV, the tallest structure at Tikal In.3 Archaeologists excavating at Tikal and at Tancah (above) Trik & Rainey in Tikal Temple II (below) Miller & Stuart at Tancah In.4 Weaving with the back-strap loom, Huehuetenango In.5 Modern market at Chichicastenango, El Quiche In.6 Portraits of Lacandon Maya from Chiapas, Mexico In.7 Portraits of Yucatec Maya from Quintana Roo In.8 Portraits of Yucatec, Quiche, and Mam Maya (top four) Yucatec & Quiche portraits (lower left) San Pedro portrait In.9 Portraits of Tzotzil Maya from Chiapas In.10 Maya teachers in the classroom In.11 Destruction wrought by looting at Naachtun, Guatemala In.12 Desecration of Stela 1 at Jimbal, Guatemala, by looters Chapter 1 The Setting 1.1 Map of the Maya Area 1.2 Map of Mayan languages 1.3 Subgrouping of Mayan languages 1.4 Map of surface elevations in the Maya Area 1.5 Map of Mean annual temperatures in Maya Area 1.6 Map of Mean annual rainfall in the Maya area 1.7 Pacific Coast mangrove growth 1.8 Southern Highlands: Agua volcano 1.9 Southern Highlands: house buried by volcanic ash 1.10 Northern Highlands: view of the Salam Valley 1.11 Southern lowlands: forest & Usumacinta river 1.12 Central lowlands: tropical forest 1.13 Central lowlands: Lake Peten Itza 1.14 Central lowlands: savanna 1.15 Northern lowlands: low forest 1.16 Northern lowlands: low hills 1.17 Northern lowlands: cenote Chapter 2 Archaeology and Maya Civilization 2.1 Analysis of Maya pottery (NAA chart from Copan) 2.2 Drawing of Jaguar Throne at Palenque from del Rio 1822 2.3 Alfred Maudslay's research at Copan 2.4 Tikal Project multidisciplinary research supplied by aircraft 2.5 Contemporary archaeological excavations Chapter 3 History and Maya Civilization 3.1 Glyphs for completion ("zero") and numbers 3.2 Examples of positional mathematics 3.3 Glyphs for the Maya time periods 3.4 Glyphs for the Maya days 3.5 Glyphs for the Maya months 3.6 Diagram of the 260-day almanac & solar year 3.7 The Mesoamerican 52-year period 3.8 Example of a Maya Long Count date 3.9 Maya Period-ending date 3.10 K'atun wheel after Landa 3.11 Astronomical alignment at Copan, Honduras 3.12 Astronomical observations from the Mexican codices 3.13 Recording Maya history (codex and scribe) 3.14 Maya "zodiac" from the Paris Codex 3.15 Almanacs from the Madrid Codex 3.16 Maya Glyphs with historical meaning 3.17 Emblem glyph affixes and main signs 3.18 Title glyphs for elite women 3.19 The Landa "alphabet" 3.20 A syllabary of Maya phonetic glyphs 3.21 Syllabic spellings and complements 3.22 Glyphs for way ("spirit companion") 3.23 Postclassic direction and Color glyphs 3.24 Title glyphs for Maya rulers and secondary lords 3.25 Translation by Simon Martin of Seibal Stela 10 text Chapter 4 The Origins of Maya Civilization 4.1 Early chipped stone tools from Belize 4.2 Early Preclassic pottery from Copan, Honduras 4.3 Middle Preclassic house remains at La Venta, Mexico 4.4 Monument 12 from Chalchuapa, El Salvador 4.5 Monument 3 from San Jose Mogote, Oaxaca, Mexico Chapter 5 Emergence in the Middle Preclassic 5.1 Stela 11 at Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala 5.2 Map of La Blanca, Guatemala 5.3 La Blanca Mound 1 5.4 La Blanca Monument 1 5.5 Map of El Ujuxte, Guatemala 5.6 Takalik Abaj Monument 1 5.7 Map of Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala 5.8 Kaminaljuyu Monument 65 5.9 El Porton, Guatemala, excavation of Monument 1 5.10 Tomb at Los Mangales, Guatemala 5.11 Middle Preclassic platforms at Cuello, Belize 5.12 K'axob, Belize; house platforms and subfloor burials 5.13 Blackman Eddy, Belize. Str. B1 Stratigraphic Section 5.14 Middle Preclassic houses at Blackman Eddy, Belize 5.15 Middle Preclassic stages Str. B1, Blackman Eddy, Belize 5.16 Map of Nakbe, Guatemala 5.17 Stela 1, Nakbe, Guatemala 5.18 Cross sections of Maya Corbeled Vaults 5.19 Plans of Maya Structures Chapter 6 Origin of States in the Late Preclassic 6.1 Stela 1, La Mojarra, Veracruz, Mexico 6.2 Tuxtla Statuette 6.3 Fragment of Tres Zapotes Stela C 6.4 Map of Izapa, Chiapas, Mexico 6.5 Izapa Stela 21 6.6 View of Kaminaljuyu 6.7 Kaminaljuyu Stela 10 6.8 Kaminaljuyu E-III-3 tomb 6.9 Takalik Abaj Stela 2 6.10 Takalik Abaj Stela 5 6.11 Map of Chocola, Guatemala 6.12 Chocola Monument 1 6.13 Chocola captive sculpture 6.14 Chalchuapa Monument 1 6.15 Salama Valley Monument 16 6.16 Late Preclassic Pot Belly sculptures 6.17 El Baul Stela 1 6.18 Map of Western Group at El Mirador 6.19 El Mirador El Tigre 6.20 El Mirador Structure 34 6.21 El Mirador Stela 2 6.22 Drawing of Lamanai Structure N10-43 6.23 Cave sculpture at Loltun, Yucatan, Mexico 6.24 Map of San Bartolo, Guatemala 6.25 San Bartolo Str. 1 tunnel section 6.26 Map of Cerros, Belize 6.27 Cerros Str. 5C-2nd 6.28 Late Preclassic texts; Kichpanha, & Pomona flare 6.29 Uaxactun E-VII & E-VII-sub 6.30 Uaxactun E-VII-sub masks 6.31 Uaxactun H Group mask 6.32 Mirador Group platforms at Dzibilchaltun 6.33 Structure 450 at Komchen, Yucatan, Mexico 6.34 Structure 500 at Komchen, Yucatan, Mexico 6.35 Caldera of Ilopango, El Salvador 6.36 Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan, Mexico 6.37 Early Classic Teotihuacan-style pottery Chapter 7 Expansion of Maya States in the Early Classic 7.1 Map of Tikal, Guatemala 7.2 Aerial view of Tikal 7.3 Tikal North Acropolis trench 7.4 Tikal North Acropolis section 7.5 Tikal North Acropolis Structure 5D-22 7.6 Tikal Stela 29 7.7 Tikal Stela 39 7.8 Tikal Stela 26 7.9 Tikal Central Acropolis plan 7.10 Stela 9 at Uaxactun, Guatemala 7.11 Uaxactun Group E 7.12 Uaxactun Stela 5 7.13 Uaxactun Str. B-XIII mural 7.14 Map of Rio Azul, Guatemala 7.15 Rio Azul Tomb 1 murals 7.16 Tikal Stela 4 7.17 Tikal Stela 31 7.18 Tikal Burial 48 7.19 Map of Copan, Honduras 7.20 Stratigraphic section of the Copan Acropolis 7.21 Copan Altar Q 7.22 Copan Hieroglyphic Stairway 7.23 Copan Hunal Structure 7.24 Copan Motmot Marker 7.25 Copan Hunal Tomb 7.26 Copan Hunal Tomb Vessels 7.27 Copan Hunal Tomb Shell mosaic 7.28 Copan Margarita Tomb 7.29 Copan SubJaguar Tomb 7.30 Zoomorph P at Quirigua, Guatemala 7.31 Quirigua Monument 26 7.32 Map of Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico 7.33 Map of Caracol, Belize 7.34 Caracol Altar 21 7.35 Caracol Caana Complex 7.36 Tikal Stela 9 7.37 Tikal Stela 23 7.38 Tikal Stela 17 7.39 Aerial view of Becan, Campeche, Mexico Chapter 8 Apogee in the Late Classic 8.1 Map of Dos Pilas 8.2 Naranjo Stela 24 and Stela 22 8.3 Tikal Stela 30 and Altar 14 8.4 Tikal Temple I lintel 8.5 Tikal Str 5D-57 stucco of Jasaw Chan K'awiil and capture 8.6 Tikal Stela 16 8.7 Tikal Temple I section of Burial 116 8.8 Tikal Temple I 8.9 Tikal Temple I tomb of Jasaw Chan K'awiil 8.10 Tikal Temple IV lintels 8.11 Tikal Stela 20 8.12 Aguateca, Guatemala, view from escarpment 8.13 Dos Pilas, Guatemala, before and after its downfall 8.14 Map of Aguateca 8.15 Aguateca Str. M7-22 (storage room in situ) 8.16 Aguateca Str. M8-4 plan of in situ materials 8.17 Aguateca Str. M8-4 mask in situ; flute & headband 8.18 Punta de Chimino, Guatemala 8.19 Calakmul Stela 51 8.20 Caracol Stela 17 8.21 Tikal Twin Pyramid Group 4E-4 8.22 Tikal Stela 22 and Altar 10 8.23 Tikal Temple III lintel 8.24 Stelae from Piedras Negras, Guatemala 8.25 Piedras Negras Wall Panel 3 8.26 Piedras Negras throne 8.27 Map of Yaxchilan, Chiapas, Mexico 8.28 Yaxchilan Lintels 24, 25, & 26 8.29 Yaxchilan Stela 11 8.30 Yaxchilan Lintels 1, 2, & 3 8.31 Yaxchilan Lintel 8 8.32 Map of Bonampak, Chiapas, Mexico 8.33 Bonampak Structure 1 8.34 Aerial view of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico 8.35 Map of Palenque 8.36 Palenque Palace stucco panels 8.37 Palenque Temple of the Inscriptions 8.38 Palenque Tomb of Pakal 8.39 Palenque Tomb of Pakal sarcophagus 8.40 Palenque Tomb of Pakal sarcophagus lid 8.41 Palenque Temple of the Sun 8.42 Palenque Temple of the Cross interior shrine 8.43 Palenque Temple of the Cross tablet 8.44 Palenque Palace Tablet 8.45 View of Tonina, Chiapas, Mexico 8.46 Tonina Stela 12 8.47 Tonina Monument 122 8.48 Copan Stela P 8.49 Copan Structure 10L-22 8.50 Copan Stela H and Stela A 8.51 Copan Ball Court 8.52 Quirigua Great Plaza 8.53 Quirigua Stela E 8.54 Copan Structure 10L-22A 8.55 Copan Structure 10L-18 8.56 Copan Altar L 8.57 Altun Ha, Belize Structure B-4 8.58 Altun Ha jade head of K'inich Ajaw Chapter 9 Transformations in the Terminal Classic 9.1 Xunantunich, Belize; view of Str. A-6 9.2 Seibal Round Structure 9.3 Seibal Stela 19 9.4 Seibal Structure A-3 9.5 Seibal Stela 10 9.6 View of Str. 1, Xpuhil, Campeche, Mexico 9.7 View of Str. II, Chicanna, Campeche, Mexico 9.8 Palace at Edzna, Campeche, Mexico 9.9 Palace arch, Labna, Yucatan, Mexico 9.10 Map of Uxmal, Yucatan, Mexico 9.11 Uxmal Stela 14 9.12 Aerial view of Uxmal 9.13 Uxmal Governor's Palace 9.14 Uxmal Nunnery Quadrangle 9.15 Uxmal Adivino 9.16 Kabah, Yucatan, Mexico, Palace of Masks 9.17 Kabah Doorjamb 9.18 Kabah causeway arch 9.19 Map of Sayil, Yucatan, Mexico 9.20 Sayil excavation of domestic structure 9.21 Map of Dzibilchaltun, Yucatan, Mexico 9.22 Dzibilchaltun Central Group 9.23 Dzibilchaltun Temple of the Seven Dolls 9.24 Coba, Yucatan, Mexico, aerial view 9.25 Coba Nohoch Mul 9.26 Coba sacbe 9.27 Ek Balam, Yucatan, Mexico, Str. 1 9.28 Aerial view of Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico 9.29 Map of Chichen Itza 9.30 Chichen Itza Las Monjas group 9.31 Chichen Itza Caracol 9.32 Chichen Itza plan of the Caracol 9.33 Chichen Itza El Castillo 9.34 Chichen Itza Red Jaguar Throne 9.35 Chichen Itza Great Ball Court & Temple of Jaguars 9.36 Chichen Itza Temple of the Jaguars mural 9.37 Chichen Itza Tzompantli 9.38 Chichen Itza Temple of the Warriors 9.39 Chichen Itza Temple of the Warriors mural 9.40 Chichen Itza turquoise mosaic 9.41 Chichen Itza El Mercado 9.42 Chichen Itza Sacred Cenote 9.43 Gold work from Chichen Itza 9.44 Motifs from gold disks from Chichen Itza 9.45 Isla Cerritos aerial view 9.46 Bilbao, Guatemala Monument 3 Chapter 10 Reformulation and Revival in the Postclassic 10.1 Map of Mayapan, Yucatan, Mexico 10.2 Map of Central Mayapan 10.3 Mayapan Castillo 10.4 Mayapan Round Temple 10.5 Mayapan-style effigy incensario 10.6 Map of Island of Cozumel 10.7 Tulum view from the north 10.8 Tulum Structure 16 mural 10.9 Tulum El Castillo (after Catherwood) 10.10 Tulum El Castillo and Structure 5 10.11 Tulum Structure 5 mural 10.12 Tulum view of Structure 45 10.13 Mural from Santa Rita Corozal, Belize 10.14 Zaculeu, Guatemala, view of site 10.15 Map of Utatlan, Guatemala 10.16 Utatlan Temple of Awilix 10.17 Structure 3 at Iximche, Guatemala 10.18 Mixcu Viejo, Guatemala, view of site Chapter 11 The Economy 11.1 Sowing maize from the Madrid Codex 11.2 Ceren, preserved Late Classic maize field 11.3 Map of agricultural terraces at Caracol, Belize 11.4 Edzna aerial view of canal system 11.5 Pulltrouser Swamp, Belize, view of relic raised fields 11.6 Pulltrouser Swamp excavations 11.7 Pulltrouser Swamp aerial view of relic raised fields 11.8 Rio Candelaria aerial view of relic raised fields 11.9 Dzemul aerial view of Xtampul salt pans Chapter 12 Organization of Maya Society 12.1 Ancient Maya clothing: loincloths from Classic monuments 12.2 Ancient Maya clothing: sandals from Classic monuments 12.3 Modern Maya huipils 12.4 Late Classic burial practice: Uaxactun Structure A-1 12.5 Maya House Mound at Sayil, Yucatan, Mexico 12.6 Ancient Maya residential group east of Xpuhil 12.7 Map of Ceren, El Salvador 12.8 Ceren, Reconstruction of Household 1 12.9 Schematic plans of Maya settlement units 12.10 Map of Caracol Causeway System Chapter 13 Ideology 13.1 Scenes of human sacrifice 13.2 Ritual burning of copal by the Lacandon Maya 13.3 Maya deities governing the world from the codices 13.4 Maya deities depicted in Postclassic codices 13.5 Maya deities depicted in Classic sources 13.6 Scepters and other regalia 13.7 Classic eccentric chipped flint from Copan 13.8 Tikal incised bone from tomb of Jasaw Chan K'awiil 13.9 Bloodletting rituals from the Madrid Codex 13.10 Sacrificial knife from Chichen Itza 13.11 Graffiti from Tikal Temple II Color Plates 1(a) Tikal Jade Vessels 1(b) Tikal Jade mosaic mask 1(c) Tikal jade jaguar 2(a) Copan Ante jade figurine Copan 2(b) Matching jade plaques 2(c) Catherwood print of Governor's Palace at Uxmal 3(a) Dresden Codex page 3(b) Cival stucco mask 4(a) San Bartolo photo of Tamale woman attendant 4(b) San Bartolo Mural: Maize God with attendants 5(a) San Bartolo Mural: Inauguration Scene 5(b) Copan Yehnal Structure Mask 6(a) Copan Margarita stucco facade 6(b) Copan Margarita Tomb vessel 7(a) Copan Rosalila replica 7(b) Copan SubJaguar Tomb vases 8(a) Tikal carved bone (portrait of Jasaw Chan K'awiil) 8(b) Tikal Polychrome vessel from (Bu. 196) 8(c) Palenque Palace 9(a) Palenque Polychrome censer 9(b) Jaina Figurine 9(c) Nebaj Vase 10 & 11 Bonampak Str. 1 Room 1 Murals 12 & 13 Bonampak Str. 1 Room 2 Murals 14 & 15 Bonampak Str. 1 Room 3 Murals 16(a) Palace at Sayil, Yucatan, Mexico 16(b) Chichen Itza mural in the Temple of the Warriors Boxes Chapter 1: The Setting of Maya Civilization 1.1 Origin of Mayan Languages 1.2 The Original Maya Homeland 1.3 Cacao 1.4 Stone Tools 1.5 Jade 1.6 Feathers 1.7 Eccentric Flints 1.8 Textiles
Robert J. Sharer is the Shoemaker Professor of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania, and Curator of the American Section at the university's Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. He is the author of Quirigua: A Classic Maya Center and Its Sculpture (1990) and Daily Life in Maya Civilization (1996), as well as two previous editions of The Ancient Maya. Loa P. Traxler is a Research Scientist in the American Section of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
"The Ancient Maya is the definitive statement for our current understanding of their time and place. It goes well beyond any other competing volume in its encompassing reach." - Journal of Anthropological Research "(T)he most comprehensive and most lavishly illustrated book on its subject." - Journal of Latin American Studies "The Ancient Maya has become a standard text on the study of Mayan culture and prehistory. Given the veritable explosion of research on the Maya, greater understanding of this past - yet living - culture has been realized." - Colonial Latin American Historical Review "(T)his work is surely a must-have reference for Mayanists of all fields... The Ancient Maya is appropriate to scholars, graduate students, and upper-level undergraduates." - The Americas "This marvelous book shows why the Maya constitute one of the best "case studies" of social and political evolution. Rich with detail and new insights, the authors skillfully show that the Maya were on a par with other great civilizations such as the Greeks, Egyptians, and Chinese. This truly monumental work has been updated to meet the needs of all readers -- from laymen to tourists to professional archaeologists -- and it should be on everyone's bookshelf to read and re-read." - Joyce Marcus, University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology