Introduction 1 About This Book 1 Foolish Assumptions 2 Icons Used in This Book 2 Beyond the Book 3 Where to Go from Here 3 Part 1: The Building Blocks of the Body 5 Chapter 1: The Language of Anatomy & Physiology 7 Organization of the Body 7 Getting into Position 11 Answers to Questions on Terminology 14 Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life 15 Building from Scratch: Atoms and Elements 15 Chemical Reactions 19 Chemical bonds 19 Organic compounds 21 Cycling through Life: Metabolism 26 Energy from food 27 Getting energy from energy 29 Answers to Questions on Life's Chemistry 33 Chapter 3: The Cell: Life's Basic Building Block 35 Life and Death of a Cell 35 Gaining Admission: The Cell Membrane 37 Diffusion 37 Osmosis 38 Active transport 39 Aiming for the Nucleus 41 Looking Inside: Organelles and Their Functions 43 Putting Together New Proteins 47 Answers to Questions on the Cell 50 Chapter 4: Divide and Conquer: Cellular Mitosis 53 Walking through the Cell Cycle 54 Waiting for action: Interphase 54 Sorting out the parts: Prophase 55 Dividing at the equator: Metaphase 55 Packing up to move out: Anaphase 55 Pinching off: Telophase 55 Splitting up: Cytokinesis 55 Understanding What Can Go Wrong during Cell Division 59 Answers to Questions on Mitosis 61 Chapter 5: The Study of Tissues: Histology 63 Getting into Your Skin: Epithelial Tissue 64 Making a Connection: Connective Tissue 68 Flexing It: Muscle Tissue 71 Getting the Signal Across: Nervous Tissue 73 Answers to Questions on Histology 74 Part 2: Weaving It Together: Bones, Muscles, and Skin 77 Chapter 6: It's Skin Deep: The Integumentary System 79 Digging Deep into Dermatology 79 The epidermis: Don't judge this book by its cover 80 The dermis: Going more than skin deep 82 Touching a Nerve in the Integumentary System 86 Accessorizing with Hair, Nails, and Glands 87 Wigging out about hair 87 The oil slick 88 Nailing the fingers and toes 88 Sweating the details 88 Getting an earful 89 Answers to Questions on the Skin 93 Chapter 7: A Scaffold to Build On: The Skeleton 95 Understanding the Functions of Dem Bones 95 Boning Up on Classifications and Structures 98 Turning Bone into Bone: Ossification 103 Endochondral ossification 103 Intramembranous ossification 103 The Axial Skeleton: Keeping It All in Line 105 Making a hard head harder 105 Putting your backbones into it 107 The Appendicular Skeleton: Reaching beyond Our Girdles 113 Arthrology: Articulating the Joints 117 Answers to Questions on the Skeleton 122 Chapter 8: Getting in Gear: The Muscles 127 Flexing Your Muscle Knowledge 128 Muscle Classifications: Smooth, Cardiac, and Skeletal 131 Contracting for a Contraction 133 Breaking down a muscle's anatomy and movement 133 Understanding what stimulates muscle contraction 135 Pulling Together: Muscles as Organs 138 Assuming the Right Tone 140 Leveraging Muscular Power 142 What's in a Name? Identifying Muscles 144 Answers to Questions on Muscles 150 Part 3: Mission Control: All Systems Go 155 Chapter 9: Feeling Jumpy: The Nervous System 157 Our Motherboard 157 Building from Basics: Neurons, Nerves, and Glial cells 158 Neurons 158 Nerves 160 Glial cells 161 Feeling Impulsive? 164 Along the neuron 165 Across the synapse 166 Minding the Central Nervous System 168 The spinal cord 168 The brain 169 Taking Side Streets: The Peripheral Nervous System 176 Keep Breathing: The Autonomic Nervous System 178 Coming to Your Senses 181 On watch: The eyes 181 Listen up: The ears 182 Answers to Questions on the Nervous System 187 Chapter 10: Raging Hormones: The Endocrine System 191 No Bland Glands 192 Enter the Ringmasters 194 The hypothalamus 194 The pituitary 195 The Supporting Cast of Glandular Characters 197 Topping off the kidneys: The adrenal glands 197 Thriving with the thyroid 198 Pairing up with the parathyroid 198 Pinging the pineal gland 199 Thumping the thymus 199 Pressing the pancreas 199 Dealing with Stress: Homeostasis 202 Answers to Questions on the Endocrine System 204 Part 4: Feed and Fuel: Supply and Transport 207 Chapter 11: Spreading the Love: The Cardiovascular System 209 Moving to the Beat of a Pump 209 Finding the Key to the Heart's Chambers 213 The atria 213 The ventricles 214 Conducting the Heart's Music 218 The orchestra 218 The music 219 The performance 220 Riding the Network of Blood Vessels 223 Withstanding the pressure 224 Capillary exchange 225 Answers to Questions on the Cardiovascular System 227 Chapter 12: Keeping Up Your Defenses: The Lymphatic System 231 Duct, Duct, Lymph 231 Poking at the Nodes 235 Having a Spleen-did Time with the Lymphatic Organs 238 Reuse and recycle: The spleen 238 T cell central: The thymus gland 239 Open wide and move along: The tonsils and Peyer's patches 239 Investigating Immunity 242 Innate defenses 242 Adaptive defenses 243 Answers to Questions on the Lymphatic System 245 Chapter 13: Oxygenating the Machine: The Respiratory System 249 Breathing In the Basics 250 Preparing the Air 254 Knowing about the nose (and sinuses) 254 Dealing with throaty matters 257 Swapping the bad for the good 260 Answers to Questions on the Respiratory System 263 Chapter 14: Fueling the Functions: The Digestive System 265 Digesting the Basics: It's Alimentary! 265 Nothing to Spit At: Into the Mouth and Past the Teeth 268 Entering the vestibule 269 Moving along the oral cavity 270 Stomaching the Body's Fuel 274 Breaking Down the Work of Digestive Enzymes 277 The small intestine 277 The liver 279 The pancreas 280 One Last Look Before Leaving 282 The appendix 282 The large intestine 282 Answers to Questions on the Digestive Tract 284 Chapter 15: Filtering Out the Junk: The Urinary System 287 Examining the Kidneys, the Body's Filters 288 Kidney structure 288 Going microscopic 288 Focusing on Filtering 292 Retaining water 292 Controlling blood volume 294 Getting Rid of the Waste 296 Surfing the ureters 296 Ballooning the bladder 296 Distinguishing the male and female urethras 296 Spelling relief: Urination 297 Answers to Questions on the Urinary System 299 Part 5: Survival of the Species 301 Chapter 16: Why Ask Y? The Male Reproductive System 303 Identifying the Parts of the Male Reproductive System 303 Packaging the Chromosomes for Delivery 309 Answers to Questions on the Male Reproductive System 315 Chapter 17: Carrying Life: The Female Reproductive System 317 Identifying the Female Reproductive Parts and Their Functions 318 External genitalia 318 Internal genitalia 318 Gamete production 319 Making Eggs: A Mite More Meiosis 324 Making Babies: An Introduction to Embryology 325 Growing from Fetus to Baby 327 Parturition 329 Growing, Changing, and Aging 330 Answers to Questions on the Female Reproductive System 333 Part 6: The Part of Tens 337 Chapter 18: Ten Study Tips for Anatomy and Physiology Students 339 Writing Down Important Stuff in Your Own Words 339 Gaining Better Knowledge through Mnemonics 340 Discovering Your Learning Style 340 Getting a Grip on Greek and Latin 341 Connecting with Concepts 341 Forming a Study Group 342 Outlining What's to Come 342 Putting In Time to Practice 342 Sleuthing Out Clues 343 Reviewing Your Mistakes 343 Chapter 19: Ten Fun Physiology Facts 345 Boning Up on the Skeleton 345 Flexing Your Muscles 346 Fighting Biological Invaders 346 Cells Hair, There, and Everywhere 347 Swallowing Some Facts about Saliva and the Stomach 347 Appreciating the Extent of the Cardiovascular System 347 "You're Glowing" Isn't Just an Expression 348 Looking at a Few of Your Extra Parts 348 Understanding Your Brain on Sleep 349 Getting Sensational News 349 Index 351
Erin Odya teaches Anatomy & Physiology at Carmel High School in Carmel, Indiana, one of Indiana's top schools. She is also the author of Anatomy & Physiology For Dummies. Pat DuPree taught anatomy/physiology, biology, medical terminology, and environmental science.