Detailed Contents Maps and GraphsFeature EssaysRe-viewing the PastDebating the PastPreface Chapter 14 The War to Save the Union Lincoln's Cabinet Fort Sumter: The First Shot The Blue and the Gray The Test of Battle: Bull Run Paying for the War Politics as Usual Behind Confederate Lines War in the West: Shiloh McClellan: The Reluctant Warrior Lee Counterattacks: Antietam The Emancipation Proclamation The Draft Riots The Emancipated People African American Soldiers Antietam to Gettysburg Lincoln Finds His General: Grant at Vicksburg Economic and Social Effects, North and South Women in Wartime Grant in the Wilderness Sherman in Georgia To Appomattox Court House Winners, Losers, and the Future Re-Viewing the PastGlory DEBATING THE PASTWhy Did the South Lose the Civil War? Chapter 15 Reconstruction and the South The Assassination of Lincoln Presidential Reconstruction Republican Radicals Congress Rejects Johnsonian Reconstruction The Fourteenth Amendment The Reconstruction Acts Congress Supreme The Fifteenth Amendment "Black Republican" Reconstruction: Scalawags and Carpetbaggers The Ravaged Land Sharecropping and the Crop-Lien System The White Backlash Grant as President The Disputed Election of 1876 The Compromise of 1877 DEBATING THE PASTWere Reconstruction Governments Corrupt? Chapter 16 The Conquest of the West The West After the Civil War The Plains Indians Indian Wars The Destruction of Tribal Life The Lure of Gold and Silver in the West Big Business and the Land Bonanza Western Railroad Building The Cattle Kingdom Open-Range Ranching Barbed-Wire Warfare DEBATING THE PASTWas the Frontier Exceptionally Violent? Chapter 17 An Industrial Giant Essentials of Industrial Growth Railroads: The First Big Business Iron, Oil, and Electricity Competition and Monopoly: The Railroads Competition and Monopoly: Steel Competition and Monopoly: Oil American Ambivalence to Big Business Reformers: George, Bellamy, Lloyd, and the Marxists The Government Reacts to Big Business: Railroad Regulation The Government Reacts to Big Business: The Sherman Antitrust Act The Labor Union Movement The American Federation of Labor Labor Militancy Rebuffed Whither America, Whither Democracy? DEBATING THE PASTWere the Industrialists "Robber Barons" or Savvy Entrepreneurs? Chapter 18 American Society in the Industrial Age Middle-Class Life Skilled and Unskilled Workers Working Women Farmers Working-Class Attitudes Working Your Way Up The "New" Immigration New Immigrants Face New Nativism The Expanding City and Its Problems Teeming Tenements The Cities Modernize Leisure Activities: More Fun and Games Christianity's Conscience and the Social Gospel The Settlement Houses Civilization and Its Discontents DEBATING THE PASTDid Immigrants Assimilate? Chapter 19 Intellectual and Cultural Trends Colleges and Universities Revolution in the Social Sciences Progressive Education History Realism in Literature Mark Twain William Dean Howells Henry James The Pragmatic Approach The Knowledge Revolution Re-Viewing the PastTitanic DEBATING THE PASTDid the Frontier Engender Individualism and Democracy? Chapter 20 Politics: Local, State, and National Congress Ascendant Recurrent IssuesParty Politics: Sidestepping the Issues Lackluster Presidents: From Hayes to Harrison Blacks in the South After ReconstructionBooker T. Washington: A "Reasonable" Champion for BlacksCity Bosses Crops and Complaints The Populist Movement Showdown on Silver The Depression of 1893 The Election of 1896 The Meaning of the Election DEBATING THE PASTWere City Governments Corrupt and Incompetent? Chapter 21 The Age of Reform Roots of Progressivism The Muckrakers The Progressive Mind "Radical" Progressives: The Wave of the Future Political Reform: Cities First Political Reform: The States State Social Legislation Political Reform: The Woman Suffrage Movement Political Reform: Income Taxes and Popular Election of Senators Theodore Roosevelt: Cowboy in the White House Roosevelt and Big Business Roosevelt and the Coal Strike TR's Triumphs Roosevelt Tilts Left William Howard Taft: The Listless Progressive, or More Is Less Breakup of the Republican Party The Election of 1912 Wilson: The New Freedom The Progressives and Minority Rights Black Militancy DEBATING THE PASTWere the Progressives Forward-Looking? Chapter 22 From Isolation to Empire Origins of the Large Policy: Coveting Colonies Toward an Empire in the Pacific Toward an Empire in Latin America The Cuban Revolution The "Splendid Little" Spanish-American War Developing a Colonial Policy The Anti-Imperialists The Philippine Insurrection Cuba and the United States The United States in the Caribbean and Central America The Open Door Policy The Panama Canal Imperialism Without Colonies DEBATING THE PASTDid the United States Acquire an Overseas Empire for Economic Reasons? Chapter 23 Woodrow Wilson and the Great War Wilson's "Moral" Diplomacy Europe Explodes in War Freedom of the Seas The Election of 1916 The Road to War Mobilizing the Economy Workers in Wartime Paying for the War Propaganda and Civil Liberties Wartime Reforms Women and Blacks in Wartime Americans: To the Trenches and Over the Top Preparing for Peace The Paris Peace Conference and the Versailles Treaty The Senate Rejects the League of Nations The Red Scare The Election of 1920 DEBATING THE PASTDid a Stroke Sway Wilson's Judgment? Chapter 24 Postwar Society and Culture: Change and Adjustment Closing the Gates to New Immigrants New Urban Social Patterns The Younger Generation The "New" Woman Popular Culture: Movies and Radio The Golden Age of Sports Urban-Rural Conflicts: Fundamentalism Urban-Rural Conflicts: Prohibition The Ku Klux Klan Sacco and Vanzetti Literary Trends The "New Negro" Economic Expansion The Age of the Consumer Henry Ford The Airplane Re-Viewing the PastChicago DEBATING THE PASTWas the Decade of the 1920s One of Self-Absorption? Chapter 25 The New Era: 1921-1933 Harding and "Normalcy" "The Business of the United States Is Business" The Harding Scandals Coolidge Prosperity Peace Without a Sword The Peace Movement The Good Neighbor Policy The Totalitarian Challenge War Debts and Reparations The Election of 1928 Economic Problems The Stock Market Crash of 1929 Hoover and the Depression The Economy Hits Bottom The Depression and Its Victims The Election of 1932 DEBATING THE PASTWhat Caused the Great Depression? Chapter 26 The New Deal: 1933-1941 The Hundred Days The National Recovery Administration (NRA) The Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) The Dust BowlThe Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) The New Deal Spirit The Unemployed Literature During the Depression Three Extremists: Long, Coughlin, and Townsend The Second New Deal The Election of 1936 Roosevelt Tries to Undermine the Supreme Court The New Deal Winds Down Significance of the New Deal Women as New Dealers: The Network Blacks During the New Deal A New Deal for Indians The Role of Roosevelt The Triumph of Isolationism War Again in Europe A Third Term for FDR The Undeclared War Re-Viewing the PastCinderella Man DEBATING THE PASTDid the New Deal succeed? Chapter 27 War and Peace The Road to Pearl Harbor Mobilizing the Home Front The War Economy War and Social Change Minorities in Time of War: Blacks, Hispanics, and Indians Internment of the Japanese Women's Contribution to the War Effort Allied Strategy: Europe First Germany Overwhelmed The Naval War in the Pacific Island Hopping Building the Atom Bomb Wartime Diplomacy Allied Suspicion of Stalin Yalta and Potsdam Re-Viewing the PastSaving Private Ryan DEBATING THE PASTShould the United States Have Used Atomic Bombs Against Japan? Chapter 28 The American Century Truman Becomes President The Postwar Economy The Containment Policy A Turning Point in Greece The Marshall Plan and the Lesson of History The Election of 1948 Containing Communism Abroad Hot War in Korea The Communist Issue at Home McCarthyism Dwight D. Eisenhower The Eisenhower-Dulles Foreign Policy McCarthy Self-Destructs Asian Policy After Korea Israel and the Middle East Eisenhower and Khrushchev Latin America Aroused The Politics of Civil Rights The Election of 1960 Re-Viewing the PastGood Night, and Good Luck DEBATING THE PASTDid Truman Needlessly Exacerbate Relations with the Soviet Union? Chapter 29 From Camelot to Watergate Kennedy in Camelot The Cuban Crises The Vietnam War "We Shall Overcome": The Civil Rights Movement Tragedy in Dallas: JFK Assassinated Lyndon Baines Johnson The Great Society Johnson Escalates the War Opposition to the War The Election of 1968 Nixon as President: "Vietnamizing" the War The Cambodian "Incursion" Detente with Communism Nixon in Triumph Domestic Policy Under Nixon The Watergate Break-in More Troubles for Nixon The Judgment on Watergate: "Expletive Deleted" DEBATING THE PASTWould JFK Have Sent a Half-Million American Troops to Vietnam? Chapter 30 Society in Flux A Society on the Move The Advent of Television At Home and Work The Growing Middle Class Religion in Changing Times Literature and Art The Perils of Progress New Racial Turmoil Native-Born Ethnics Rethinking Public Education Students in Revolt The Counterculture The Sexual Revolution Women's Liberation DEBATING THE PASTDid Mass Culture Make Life Shallow? Chapter 31 Running on Empty: The Nation Transformed The Oil Crisis Ford as President The Fall of South Vietnam Ford Versus Carter The Carter Presidency A National Malaise Stagflation: The Weird Economy Families Under Stress: Defeat of the Equal Rights Amendment Cold War or Detente? The Iran Crisis: Origins The Iran Crisis: Carter's Dilemma The Election of 1980 Reagan as President Four More Years "The Reagan Revolution" Change and Uncertainty AIDS The New Merger Movement "A Job for Life": Layoffs Hit Home A "Bipolar" Economy, a Fractured Society The Iran-Contra Arms Deal DEBATING THE PASTDid Reagan End the Cold War? Chapter 32 Misdemeanors and High Crimes The Election of 1988 Crime and Punishment "Crack" and Urban Gangs George H. W. Bush as President The Collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe The War in the Persian Gulf The Deficit Worsens Enter Bill Clinton The Election of 1992 Clinton as PresidentEmergence of the Republican Majority The Election of 1996 Clinton Impeached Clinton's Legacy A Racial Divide Violence and Popular Culture The Economic Boom and the Internet The 2000 Election: George W. Bush Wins by One Vote The New Terrorism Intensifies September 11, 2001 America Fights Back: War in Afghanistan The Second Iraq War 2004: Bush Wins a Second TermMore Trouble in AsiaTroubles at Home: Immigration Reform and Energy Policy [*final title TBD]Hurricane KatrinaIraq Insurgency Intensifies The Persistent Past and Imponderable Future DEBATING THE PASTDo Historians Ever Get it Right? AppendixThe Declaration of IndependenceThe Constitution of the United States of AmericaAmendments to the ConstitutionSupplementary ReadingPresent-day United StatesPresent-day WorldCreditsIndex
With the political history of the nation as its organizational framework, American Destiny: Narrative of a Nation describes the development and growth of the United States as the product of the myriad actions, ideas, and forces of the immense variety of individuals and groups who together comprise the American people. In richly detailed prose, the book examines the political, social, economic, and cultural developments that have shaped this country. This elegantly written, concise text offers a lower-price alternative to traditional U.S. history survey textbooks, while maintaining the efficacy of a full four-color map and image program.
Mark C. Carnes received his undergraduate degree from Harvard and his Ph.D. in history from Columbia University, where he studied and trained with Professor John A. Garraty. The Ann Whitney Olin Professor History at Barnard College, Columbia University, Professor Carnes has chaired both the departments of History and American Studies at Barnard. In addition to this textbook, Carnes and Garraty have co-authored Mapping America's Past: A Historical Atlas and are co-general editors of the 24-volume American National Biography, for which they were awarded the Waldo Leland Prize of the American Historical Association, the Darmouth Prize of the American Library Association, and the Hawkins Prize of the American Association of Publishers. In addition, Carnes has published numerous books in American social and cultural history, including Past Imperfect: History According to the Movies (1995), Novel History: Historians and Novelists Confront America's Past (and Each Other) (2001), and Invisible Giants: 50 Americans That Shaped the Nation but Missed the History Books (2002). Carnes also created "Reacting to the Past", which won the Theodore Hesburgh Award, sponsored by TIAA-CREF, as the outstanding pedagogical innovation of 2004. "Garraty preaches a particular doctrine on historical writing, expounding on the details of a complex process whereby the murky abstractions of the past are distilled into clean, clear narrative. He insists that the writer's sole duty is to readers. This literary alchemy is all the more wondrous for being so devoid of artifice," Carnes observes. John A. Garraty. Holding a Ph.D. from Columbia University and an L.H.D. from Michigan State University, Professor Garraty is Gouverneur Morris Professor Emeritus of History at Columbia. He is the author, co-author, and editor of scores of books and articles, among them biographies of Silas Wright, Henry Cabot Lodge, Woodrow Wilson, George W. Perkins, and Theodore Roosevelt. Along with Mark Carnes, he is co-editor of the American National Biography. Garraty has also contributed a volume-The New Commonwealth-to the New American Nation series and edited Quarrels That Shaped the Constitution. He was a member of the Board of Directors of American heritage magazine and served as both vice president and head of the teaching division of the American Historical Association. His areas of research interest include the Gilded age, unemployment (in a historical sense), and the Great Depression of the 1930s. Of his collaboration with Carnes on The American Nation, Garraty says, "Although this volume is the work of two authors, it is as nearly the product of a single historical sensibility as is possible. Mark's scholarly specialization in cultural and social issues, especially gender, complements mine in politics and the economy. The book has benefited, too, from his special interest in postwar America. Over the many years of our collaborations, one of our favorite topics of discussion has been the craft of historical writing. We share a commitment to clarity and conciseness. We strive to avoid jargon and verbiage. We believe that while the political history of the nation provides a useful narrative framework, its people are what give the story meaning."