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African Histories

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Table of Contents

Preface Chapter 1: Archaeobotany and Cultivation in Africa CHAPTER OBJECTIVES THE PROBLEM Humans and plant interaction Source 1.1: Cave painting of hunters and their prey, southern Africa, undated Source 1.2: Conversations with Ogotemmeli, Dogon-speaker, Sahelian West Africa, 1965 Source 1.3: The Eloquent Peasant, Middle Kingdom Egypt/Kemet (c.2040-1650 BCE) THE METHOD Source 1.4: Pollen from important Sahelian crops, 1995-2005 Source 1.5: Enset and banana phytoliths, 2005-2006 THE EVIDENCE The spread and use of Bananas in Africa Source 1.6: Comparative morphology of Musa and Ensete phytoliths, 2005-2006 Wine and Beer in Pharaonic and Roman Egypt Source 1.7: Main components of pollen samples from Saruma amphorae (jars), 4th-7th century CE EXERCISES Exercise 1: Exploring the domestication of sorghum Exercise 2: Interpreting archaeobotanical data FURTHER READING Chapter 2: Early Written Evidence of State and Society in Classical North-Eastern Africa CHAPTER OBJECTIVES THE PROBLEM The Scorpion King and depictions of ancient and classical North-East Africa How did early North-East African societies organize themselves to face challenges? Writing in North-East Africa The connections between written sources and challenges to society THE METHOD Basic practices for interpreting sources THE EVIDENCE Egypt: The Book of the Dead and the challenge of creating a civil society Source 2.1: Two versions of the "Declaration of Innocence", Late Period Egypt, c.717-332 BCE Kush: The Confirmation of Aspelta and the challenge of succession Sources 2.2: Aspelta's Coronation stela, image and translation, Napata, c.600-595 BCE Aksum: Ezana's conquest stones and the challenge of war Source 2.3: Ezana's conquest stone, Meroe (c.360-350 CE) EXERCISES Exercise 1: Interpreting early written sources Exercise 2: Reflections upon the meaning of written sources FURTHER READING Chapter 3: Linguistic Evidence and the Bantu Expansion CHAPTER OBJECTIVES THE PROBLEM The Bantu expansion THE METHOD Language classification and linguistic methods Source 3.1: Tree diagram for Great Lakes Bantu, present day extending backward Source 3.2: Tree diagram for Western Lakes (a portion of Great Lakes Bantu) Word histories and social histories: How social historians use linguistic evidence THE EVIDENCE Western Lakes Bantu as a case study Source 3.3: Western Lakes terms for discussing power, c.200-1400 Source 3.4: Constructing Dominion over the Land, c.200-1400 EXERCISES Exercise 1: Interpreting linguistic evidence of Nilo-Saharan languages Source 3. 5: A section of the Nilo-Saharan language group (not all modern or historical languages shown) Source 3.6: Words from the Nilo-Saharan family, c.1 CE - Present FURTHER READING Chapter 4: Archaeological Evidence for the Development of African Cities CHAPTER OBJECTIVES THE PROBLEM Early African Cities THE METHOD The practice of archaeology in Africa Source 4.1: Sequence Chart for Northern Upemba Depression "Historians, are Archaeologists your Siblings?": Using archaeological evidence and evaluating archaeological studies THE EVIDENCE The Middle Niger as a case study Source 4.2: Discovery/Recovery, 1977 Sources 4.3 and 4.4: The Findings Sources 4.5 and 4.6: Interpretations EXERCISES Exercise 1: decoding a text on Benin City (in modern Nigeria) Exercise 2: stratigraphy and association in Benin City Source 4.7: Stratigraphic analysis of Clerks' Quarters site, Benin, 1975 Exercise 3: analysis of Northern Upemba Depression (in modern Democratic Republic of Congo) Exercise 4: Interpreting archaeological data FURTHER READINGS Chapter 5: African Memories and Perspectives of the Atlantic Slave Trade CHAPTER OBJECTIVES THE PROBLEM How did West and Central Africans understand and experience the Atlantic Slave Trade? THE METHODS Oral Histories Source 5.1: Sibell's Narrative, collected by John Ford, Barbados, 1799 Autobiographies and memoires Source 5.2: The autobiography of Venture Smith, Connecticut, 1798 Oral Tradition Source 5.3: "Kpele" dirge memorializing the effects of the Atlantic Slave Trade, Ghana, collected c.1970 THE EVIDENCE Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative as a memory of Africa during the era of the Atlantic slave trade Source 5.4: Olaudah Equaino's memories of Essaka, written in London, c.1789 Written and oral accounts of "cannibalism" and "witchcraft" as idioms for understanding the slave trade Source 5.5: The slave trade viewed through the idiom of cannibalism, 1659-1755 Oral traditions from Atorkor as a message from the past Source 5.7: Togbui Awusa's narrative, Ghana, collected c.2002 EXCERCISES Exercise 1: Interpreting memory in oral and written form Exercise 2: Ashy's narrative from Barbados Source 5.8: Ashy's Narrative (`Fantee'), transcribed by John Ford, Barbados, 1799 FURTHER READINGS Chapter 6: Islamic Sources and Version of Swahili Origins CHAPTER OBJECTIVES THE PROBLEM "Origins" in African history and the Swahili past THE METHOD Islamic sources in Africa The production of sources as a guide to their meaning THE SOURCE The Pate Chronicle Source 6.1: Excerpt from the Stigand Version of the Pate Chronicles, 1908, Lamu archipelago Source 6.2: Excerpt from the Werner version of the Pate Chronicles, 1911, Lamu archipelago Source 6.3: King-list of Pate from the Werner version of the Pate Chronicles Source 6.4: MS 177 version of the Pate Chronicles, c.1900, Lamu archipelago/Dar es Salaam Source 6.5: Tomalcheva's "stratigraphy" of versions of the Pate Chronicle Source 6.6: Pouwels' comparisons of king-lists in versions of the Pate Chronicles EXERCISES Exercise 1: Exploring Swahili origins Exercise 2: interpreting versions of thePate Chronicle FURTHER READING Chapter 7: Intellectual History and Cultural Nationalism in West Africa CHAPTER OBJECTIVES THE PROBLEM Who were nineteenth century West African intellectuals and how can we describe their projects? THE METHOD Intellectual history through written sources THE SOURCES The emergence of West African cultural nationalists James Africanus Horton on self-government in West Africa Source 7.1: James Africanus Horton, West African Countries and Peoples, completed in the United Kingdom, 1868 John Mensah Sarbah on indigenous institutions of government Source 5.2: John Mensah Sarbah, Fanti National Constitution, Ghana, 1906 EXERCISES Exercise 1: analyzing Casely-Hayford's Gold Coast Native Institutions Source 5.3: J.E. Casely-Hayford, Gold Coast Native Institutions, Written in West Africa and published in the United Kingdom, 1903 Exercise 2: Cultural nationalism as a theme in intellectual histories FURTHER READING Chapter 8: Planning, Photography, and the Struggle for Power in Colonial Africa CHAPTER OBJECTIVES THE PROBLEM What was everyday life like for Africans under colonial rule? THE METHOD "Power" as a concept in human societies Architecture and urban planning as evidence of power relationships Source 8.1: Italian plan for colonial Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1940 Source 8.2: Photograph of Atakpame, Togoland, c.1910 Source 8.3: European buildings in Palime, Togoland, c.1910 Source 8.4: Women's March on the Union Buildings, Pretoria, South Africa, August 9, 1956 Photographs as evidence of power relationships Source 8.5: Hair dressing in Abokobi, Gold Coast (modern Ghana), c.1900-1904 Source 8.6: "Is It Higher Wages at Last?", South Africa, 1960 THE EVIDENCE Architecture and urban planning in Italian colonial North and North-East Africa Source 8.7: Arch by Rava in Somalia, 1935 Two neighboring "national" monuments in South Africa: The Voortrekker Monument and Freedom Park Source 8.8: The Voortrekker Monument, South Africa, completed 1949 Source 8.9: Images from the "historical frieze", Voortrekker Monument Source 8.10: Freedom Park and Voortrekker Monument, Pretoria, 2009 EXERCISES Exercise 1: Interpreting the built environment Exercise 2: City planning and architecture in Cape Town Source 8.11: "District Six: The Razzle and Dazzle Good, Bad Land", Cape Town, 1963 Source 8.12: District six before and after forced removals, Cape Town Source 8.13: The Rhodes Memorial, Cape Town, 2009 FURTHER READING Chapter 9: Remembering Decolonization Through Ethnography and Popular Painting in Central Africa CHAPTER OBJECTIVES THE PROBLEM How can we comprehend popular experiences of decolonization in Africa? THE METHOD The challenge of understanding art as an historical source Ethnography THE SOURCES The Congo Crisis Memory and Popular Paintings of the Congo Crisis Sources 9.1 and 9.2: Two popular paintings from Democratic Republic of Congo, 1990s Ethnographies of popular painters Sources 9.3 and 9.4: Tshibumba Kanda Matulu (T) and Johannes Fabian (F) Democratic Republic of Congo, 1990s (representing 1960) Source 9.5: Tshibumba Kanda Matulu paintings, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1990s (representing 1960) Sources 9.6 and 9.7: Tshibumba Kanda Matulu paintings, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1990s (representing 1960/1961) EXERCISES Exercise 1: Interpretation of ethnography Source 9.8: Tshibumba Kanda Matulu, "The Deaths of Lumumba, Mpolo and Okito Exercise 2: Representations of Lumumba Sources 9.9 and 9.10, Tshibumba Kanda Matulu paintings, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1990s (representing 1960) Source 9.11: Interview between Fabian (F) and Tshibumba (T), Democratic Republic of Congo, 1990s FURTHER READINGS Chapter 10 : Literature and Decolonization in Africa CHAPTER OBJECTIVES THE PROBLEM How did Africans perceive the causes, strategies, and effects of the struggle for independence? THE METHOD Historicizing literature as a product of society Source 10.1: Excerpt from Leopold Sedar Senghor, "Message", c.1945, France/Senegal Source 10.2: Excerpts from Kobina Sekyi's "The Anglo-Fanti", c.1917-1918, Ghana The role of literature in the formation of culture and politics THE SOURCES Things Fall Apart: Chinua Achebe's precolonial Africa from the inside Source 10.3: Achebe on themes in Things Fall Apart, 1969-1981 Source 10.4: Proverbs from Things Fall Apart, 1958, Nigeria Source 10.5: First stanza of William Butler Yeats' The Second Coming, 1920, Ireland God's Bits of Wood: Sembene Ousmane's visions of the decolonization of Senegal Source 10.6: Excerpts from God's Bits of Wood, 1959-1960, Senegal Source 10.7: Excerpt from God's Bits of Wood Source 10.8: Gadjigo on reading God's Bits of Wood, 2007 EXERCISES Exercise 1: Interpreting novels by African authors Exercise 2: Analyzing David Diop's "The Time of the Martyr" Source 10.9: D. Diop, "The Time of the Martyr" FURTHER READING Chapter 11: Textbooks and Tribunals in the Aftermath of Crises CHAPTER OBJECTIVES THE PROBLEM How do societies and individuals deal with the aftermath of crises? THE METHOD Reading curricula and course materials Source 11.1: Textbook treatments of the 1913 Native Land Act, 1974/1999, South Africa Sources 11.2: South African curriculum policy statements, 1962/2005, South Africa Reading Testimonies Source 11.3: Testimony from the Special Court for Sierra Leone, 2006, Sierra Leone/Netherlands THE EVIDENCE The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa Source 11.4: The purposes of the TRC, 1994/1998, South Africa Source 11.5: Testimony of Sheila Thandiwe Bless, on the death of Zandisile Matiti, 1996, Queenstown, South Africa Source 11.6: Questions at the Amnesty Hearings, 1997, Cape Town, South Africa Source 11.7: Political groups submissions to the TRC, 1996, South Africa Rwanda Source 11. 8: The Gacaca Courts, 2001, Rwanda Source 11.9: A Lesson plan for Module III of the proposed Rwandan history curriculum, 2006, Rwanda EXERCISES Exercise 1: Intepreting courtroom testimony FURTHER READINGS Chapter 12: Anthropology and the Gendering of the Study of AIDS in Africa CHAPTER OBJECTIVES THE PROBLEM Why has HIV/AIDS spread so fast and affected so many in Africa? THE METHOD Relationships between anthropology and history Gender as a category of analysis THE SOURCES Studies of gender, sexuality, and sex in Uganda and South Africa Source 12.1: Theory in "African Sex is Dangerous!", Uganda, 2001-2003 Source 12.2: Context in "African Sex is Dangerous!", Uganda, 2001-2003 Source 12.3: Description in "African Sex is Dangerous!", Uganda, 2002-2003 Source 12.4: Historical change in the meaning of isoka among isiZulu-speakers, South Africa, 1940s Source 12.5: Femininity among isiZulu-speakers, South Africa, 1920s and 1930s Source 12.6: Contemporary constructions of masculinity among isiZulu-speakers, South Africa, 2000s EXERCISES Exercise 1: Interpreting ethnographic data FURTHER READINGS Epilogue: African histories and Histories of Africa The Limitations of this book Methods for exploring the past The values of historical enquiry Questions remaining

About the Author

Trevor Getz is an associate professor of African history at San Francisco State University and the author of Slavery and Reform in West Africa (2004). He has co-authored several textbooks including Exchanges: A Global History. Trained as an Africanist, he was a Fulbright scholar at the University of the Western Cape and the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa. He is currently working on both a graphic novel and a monograph of the life of Abina Mansah, a young enslaved woman who liberated herself in 19th century Ghana. Esperanza Brizuela-Garcia is an assistant professor of history at Montclair State University where she teaches courses on African history, methodology and philosophy of history. She was a Rockefeller fFellow at the Center of African Studies of the University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana and is currently working on a book that examines the intersection between African history, world history and the philosophy of history.


Overall, I think this text responds to the problem of getting students to think "historically;" that is, to demonstrate the ability to derive information from primary and secondary sources and to weigh the reliability of these sources, and to critically evaluate diverse interpretations of the same historical event...I applaud what the authors have done. In students, it should inspire active learning, critical thinking, and a deeper engagement with the material than a typical textbook could accomplish. -James Gump, Universityof San Diego I am excited about this text book because it teaches skill development as well as context. I also like the chapter organization around a problem. The "Further Reading" suggestions also provide ideas for supplementing lesson plans and providing students with more breadth about a subject or region. -Jeremy Ball, DickinsonCollege Students will find this work helpful when trying to find the primary sources to support their arguments especially in their research assignments. -Saneta Maiko, IndianaUniversity, Purdue University - Fort Wayne

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