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Advanced Bayesian Methods for Medical Test Accuracy

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Table of Contents

Introduction Introduction Statistical Methods in Medical Test Accuracy Datasets for This Book Software Bayesian Approach References Medical Tests and Preliminary Information Introduction Medical Imaging Tests Other Medical Tests Activities Involved in Medical Testing Accuracy and Agreement Developmental Trials for Medical Devices Literature References Preview of the Book Introduction Preliminary Information Fundamentals of Test Accuracy Advanced Methods for Test Accuracy References Fundamentals of Diagnostic Accuracy Introduction Study Design Bayesian Methods for Test Accuracy: Binary and Ordinal Data Clustered Data: Detection and Localization Comparing Accuracy between Modalities with Ordinal Scores Exercises References Regression and Medical Test Accuracy Introduction Audiology Study Receiver Operating Characteristic Area and Patient Covariates Regression Methods for Continuous Test Scores Exercises References Agreement and Test Accuracy Introduction Ordinal Scores with a Gold Standard Continuous Scores with a Gold Standard Agreement with Ordinal Scores and No Gold Standard Other Measures of Agreement Agreement and Test Accuracy Kappa and Association Consensus Agreement with Multiple Raters and Ordinal Scores-No Gold Standard Conclusions for Agreement and Accuracy Exercises References Estimating Test Accuracy with an Imperfect Reference Standard Introduction Two Binary Tests Posterior Distribution for Two Binary Tests Posterior Distribution without Conditional Independence Posterior Distribution Assuming Conditional Independence Example of Accuracy for Diagnosing a Bacterial Infection Accuracies of Two Binary Tests for Several Populations with Conditional Independence Accuracies of Two Binary Tests without Conditional Independence: Two Populations Multiple Tests in a Single Population Multiple Tests without Conditional Independence Two Ordinal Tests and the Receiver Operating Characteristic Area Exercises References Verification Bias and Test Accuracy Introduction Verification Bias and Binary Tests Two Binary Tests Ordinal Tests and Verification Bias Two Ordinal Tests and Verification Bias Two Ordinal Tests and Covariates Inverse Probability Weighting Without the Missing at Random Assumption One Ordinal Test and the Receiver Operating Characteristic Area Comments and Conclusions Exercises References Test Accuracy and Medical Practice Introduction Choice of Optimal Threshold Test Accuracy with Bayesian Decision Curves Test Accuracy and Clinical Trials Summary and Conclusions Exercises References Accuracy of Combined Tests Introduction Two Binary Tests Two Binary Tests and Several Readers Accuracy of Combined Binary Tests with Verification Bias Likelihood Ratio, the Risk Score, the Neyman-Pearson Lemma, and the Accuracy of Multiple Ordinal Tests Accuracy of the Combined Test for Continuous Scores Observations and Conclusions Exercises References Bayesian Methods for Meta-Analysis Introduction Summary Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve and Bilogistic Regression Bayesian Analysis for Summary Accuracy Meta-Analysis with Two Tests Meta-Analysis with Study Covariates and One Test Meta-Analysis with Covariates for Several Tests Other Meta-Analyses Comments and Conclusions Exercises References Appendix: Introduction to WinBUGS Introduction Download Essentials Output Another Example Summary References

About the Author

Lyle D. Broemeling, Ph.D., is Director of Broemeling and Associates Inc., and is a consulting biostatistician. He has been involved with academic health science centers for about 20 years and has taught and been a consultant at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and the University of Texas School of Public Health. His main interest is in developing Bayesian methods for use in medical and biological problems and in authoring textbooks in statistics. His previous books are Bayesian Analysis of Linear Models, Econometrics and Structural Change(written with Hiraki Tsurumi), Bayesian Biostatistics and Diagnostic Medicine, and Bayesian Methods for Agreement.


"... very thorough coverage of topics that are commonly encountered in practice as well as numerous examples. This book is particularly appropriate for graduate students in statistics who have interests in diagnostic medicine. It is also valuable to consulting statisticians who have some basic knowledge of Bayesian methods and need such a reference to solve practical problems. ... a great introduction to Bayesian methods specifically focused on solving medical test accuracy-related problems. It addresses popular topics in medical accuracy studies via Bayesian statistical methods to take advantage of prior information. Some complex problems, such as situations without a gold standard and partial verification bias, are also discussed. I recommend this book to graduate students in statistics or biostatistics and applied statisticians who are interested in medical diagnostic test accuracy." -Xiaoye Ma, Journal of the American Statistical Association, December 2013 "Dr. Broemeling places all these considerations associated with test accuracy determinations into a pure Bayesian perspective. His book can be, in some sense, considered as a Bayesian counterpart to the books of Pepe and Zhou et al. The presentation is quite detailed and supported by a significant number of applications. ... The literature review supporting the theoretical concepts about accuracy and the practical aspects associated with the applications is without a doubt extensive. ... a good overview of the methods currently used to assess the accuracy of a medical test and their transposition to the Bayesian framework." -Benoit Beck, CHANCE, August 2013 "It covers extensively most aspects of applied problems one can encounter when dealing with diagnostic accuracy studies. An attractive feature is that WinBUGS code needed for the implementation of the described methodologies is given in every chapter (also available on the author's blog). A set of exercises is given at the end of each chapter. ... a carefully written book. It will be useful for consulting biostatisticians, graduate students and teachers using methods for the assessment of diagnostic accuracy from a Bayesian viewpoint. The book is a must have for the interested audience." -Christos Nakas, ISCB Newsletter, June 2013

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