API Specification for Storage Tanks Jurisdiction of Various Standards for Storages Layout of API 650 Based on April 2013 Edition Classification of Storages Some Basics about Flammable and Combustible Liquids Classification of Storages (NFPA 30) Classification of Storages (Institute of Petroleum) Tank Farm Layout Considerations Typical Tank Farms Spacing of Tanks as per NFPA 30 (2003 Edition) Minimum Distances (NFPA 30) Spacing of a Tank for Petroleum Stocks as per the Institute of Petroleum Guidelines for Classes I, II, and III(2) API Tank Sizes for Layout Purpose (Based on API 650) Summary of Refinery Storage Tanks Use of Floating and Fixed Roof Tanks Storage Tank Capacity Chart Tank Design Tank Design Considerations Design Aids Available Basis for Designing Design Calculations Drawings Certified for Construction Drawings and Documents Documents for Statutory and Client Approvals Design Change Note As-Built Documents Tank Foundation Considerations for the Selection of Foundation Types of Foundations Handing Over the Foundation Sequence of Mechanical Works for Storage Tank Erection Preliminary Works on Award of Contract Responsibility Matrix (Head Office and Site) Organization Setup at Site Design, Drawings, and Documents Approval List of Documents Preparation of Bill of Materials with Specifications Inquiry and Purchase of Raw Materials Materials Procured from Stockists or Traders Purchase or Transfer of Construction Equipment to Site List of Equipment Required at Site Work Contracts Local Contracts and Purchases at Site Tank Erection Storage Tank Erection Inspection of Raw Materials Identification and Traceability of Raw Materials Marking of Plates Cutting of Plates and Other Pressure and Load Retaining Parts Inspection of Plates after Cutting and Edge Preparation Bending of Plates Laying of Bottom (Annular, Bottom, and Sketch) Plates Erection of Shell Courses, Roofs, and Other Appurtenances General Conventional Method Bygging or Jacking Up Method Comparison of Erection Methodology Erection of Shells by Conventional Method Methodology for Tank Erection by Jacking Up Method Erection of Roof Structure and Cone Roof Plates Shell Appurtenances Manufacture of Subassemblies Installation of Appurtenances Spiral Stairway, Handrails, Platforms, and Other Support Attachments Welding Weld Edge Preparation Typical Weld Joints Restrictions on Types of Weld Joints Shell Vertical Joints Welding Processes Welding Procedure Specifications Procedure Qualification Welder Qualification Welder's Identification Cards Welding Sequence Electrodes Storage and Their Drying Weld Repairs Weld Repair Procedure Inspection and Testing of Welds Summary of Inspection and Tests Butt Welds Fillet Welds (Pressure Retaining) Other Structural Welds on Shell and Roof (Inside and Outside) Inspection (Dimensional) Nondestructive Testing Radiographic Testing Minimum Number and Location of Radiographs Required as per API 650 Weld Maps with Pictorial Presentation of Radiography Other Requirements for Radiography Ultrasonic Testing Magnetic Particle Testing Liquid Penetrant Testing Visual Examination or Testing Weld Maps Documentation of NDT Other Tests Vacuum Box Testing Pneumatic Testing of Reinforcement Pads Hydrostatic Testing of Tank Measurement of Settlement of Tank during Hydrostatic Testing Alternate Tests in Lieu of Hydrostatic Testing Testing of Roof Testing of Roof for Appendix F Tanks Cleaning, Internal Lining, and External Painting Cleaning after Hydrostatic Test Planning for Surface Preparation and Lining or Painting Surface Preparation (Write-up Courtesy M/s Transocean Coating, Rotterdam) Edge and Weld Preparation for New Constructions Paints and Their Uses Effective Life of Coating and Film Thickness Other Requirements by Clients for Surface Preparation and Lining and Painting of Tanks Commonly Used Color Schemes to Reduce Vapor Loss Commonly Used External Coating Systems (for Atmospheric Temperatures) Commonly Used Internal Lining Systems (for Atmospheric Temperatures) Inspection and Tests with Recommended Frequency for Surface Preparation and Lining and Painting Documentation General Manufacturer's Record Book Suggested Contents for MRB Documents Not Specified by a Standard General Requirement for Contents of MRB Records and Reports of Inspections, Tests, and Calibrations Certification for Materials Heat Treatment Records and Charts NDE Reports Formats General Formats for Fixed Cone Roof Tanks Additional Formats for Floating Roof Tanks Bibliography Annexure A: Material Specification Summary Annexure B: Recommended Joint Design Guide to Sketches and Tables of API 650 Annexure C: Welding Procedure and Welder Qualification Requirements Annexure D: Radiography of Storage Tanks Annexure E: Inspection and Test Plan Annexure F: Requirements for Floating Roof Tanks Annexure G: Additional Inspections and Tests for Floating Roof Tanks Annexure H: Calibration of Tanks Annexure I: Floating Roof Drains Annexure J: Floating Roof Seal Selection Guidelines
Sunil Pullarcot is currently a specialized inspection consultant with the Kuwait Oil Company and has more than 33 years of experience in the industry. He received a bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from the University of Kerala (College of Engineering, Trivandrum), and a master of technology in mechanical production from the Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT). His work has been featured in numerous journals, and he is also the author of a book on pressure vessel manufacturing.
"This book provides a detailed know-how for the construction of storage tanks and their testing and maintenance. This book can serve as a practical handbook to derive all of the information in one place for engineering and safety management of storage tanks." -Vladimir Strezov, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia "Since I have been reading books on tanks, I have not seen or read details about tank construction as a whole. This is a masterpiece." -Dr. Ehigiator Irughe, Raphael, GeoSystems and Environmental Engineering/University of Benin