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Above Ground Storage Tanks
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Table of Contents

API Specification for Storage Tanks

Jurisdiction of Various Standards for Storages

Layout of API 650 Based on April 2013 Edition

Classification of Storages

Some Basics about Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Classification of Storages (NFPA 30)

Classification of Storages (Institute of Petroleum)

Tank Farm Layout

Considerations

Typical Tank Farms

Spacing of Tanks as per NFPA 30 (2003 Edition)

Minimum Distances (NFPA 30)

Spacing of a Tank for Petroleum Stocks as per the Institute of Petroleum Guidelines for Classes I, II, and III(2)

API Tank Sizes for Layout Purpose (Based on API 650)

Summary of Refinery Storage Tanks

Use of Floating and Fixed Roof Tanks

Storage Tank Capacity Chart

Tank Design

Tank Design Considerations

Design Aids Available

Basis for Designing

Design Calculations

Drawings

Certified for Construction Drawings and Documents

Documents for Statutory and Client Approvals

Design Change Note

As-Built Documents

Tank Foundation

Considerations for the Selection of Foundation

Types of Foundations

Handing Over the Foundation

Sequence of Mechanical Works for Storage Tank Erection

Preliminary Works on Award of Contract

Responsibility Matrix (Head Office and Site)

Organization Setup at Site

Design, Drawings, and Documents Approval

List of Documents

Preparation of Bill of Materials with Specifications

Inquiry and Purchase of Raw Materials

Materials Procured from Stockists or Traders

Purchase or Transfer of Construction Equipment to Site

List of Equipment Required at Site

Work Contracts

Local Contracts and Purchases at Site

Tank Erection

Storage Tank Erection

Inspection of Raw Materials

Identification and Traceability of Raw Materials

Marking of Plates

Cutting of Plates and Other Pressure and Load Retaining Parts

Inspection of Plates after Cutting and Edge Preparation

Bending of Plates

Laying of Bottom (Annular, Bottom, and Sketch) Plates

Erection of Shell Courses, Roofs, and Other Appurtenances

General

Conventional Method

Bygging or Jacking Up Method

Comparison of Erection Methodology

Erection of Shells by Conventional Method

Methodology for Tank Erection by Jacking Up Method

Erection of Roof Structure and Cone Roof Plates

Shell Appurtenances

Manufacture of Subassemblies

Installation of Appurtenances

Spiral Stairway, Handrails, Platforms, and Other Support Attachments

Welding

Weld Edge Preparation

Typical Weld Joints

Restrictions on Types of Weld Joints

Shell Vertical Joints

Welding Processes

Welding Procedure Specifications

Procedure Qualification

Welder Qualification

Welder's Identification Cards

Welding Sequence

Electrodes Storage and Their Drying

Weld Repairs

Weld Repair Procedure

Inspection and Testing of Welds

Summary of Inspection and Tests

Butt Welds

Fillet Welds (Pressure Retaining)

Other Structural Welds on Shell and Roof (Inside and Outside)

Inspection (Dimensional)

Nondestructive Testing

Radiographic Testing

Minimum Number and Location of Radiographs Required as per API 650

Weld Maps with Pictorial Presentation of Radiography

Other Requirements for Radiography

Ultrasonic Testing

Magnetic Particle Testing

Liquid Penetrant Testing

Visual Examination or Testing

Weld Maps

Documentation of NDT

Other Tests

Vacuum Box Testing

Pneumatic Testing of Reinforcement Pads

Hydrostatic Testing of Tank

Measurement of Settlement of Tank during Hydrostatic Testing

Alternate Tests in Lieu of Hydrostatic Testing

Testing of Roof

Testing of Roof for Appendix F Tanks

Cleaning, Internal Lining, and External Painting

Cleaning after Hydrostatic Test

Planning for Surface Preparation and Lining or Painting

Surface Preparation (Write-up Courtesy M/s Transocean Coating, Rotterdam)

Edge and Weld Preparation for New Constructions

Paints and Their Uses

Effective Life of Coating and Film Thickness

Other Requirements by Clients for Surface Preparation and Lining and Painting of Tanks

Commonly Used Color Schemes to Reduce Vapor Loss

Commonly Used External Coating Systems (for Atmospheric Temperatures)

Commonly Used Internal Lining Systems (for Atmospheric Temperatures)

Inspection and Tests with Recommended Frequency for Surface Preparation and Lining and Painting

Documentation

General

Manufacturer's Record Book

Suggested Contents for MRB

Documents Not Specified by a Standard

General Requirement for Contents of MRB

Records and Reports of Inspections, Tests, and Calibrations

Certification for Materials

Heat Treatment Records and Charts

NDE Reports

Formats

General

Formats for Fixed Cone Roof Tanks

Additional Formats for Floating Roof Tanks

Bibliography

Annexure A: Material Specification Summary

Annexure B: Recommended Joint Design Guide to Sketches and

Tables of API 650

Annexure C: Welding Procedure and Welder Qualification Requirements

Annexure D: Radiography of Storage Tanks

Annexure E: Inspection and Test Plan

Annexure F: Requirements for Floating Roof Tanks

Annexure G: Additional Inspections and Tests for Floating Roof Tanks

Annexure H: Calibration of Tanks

Annexure I: Floating Roof Drains

Annexure J: Floating Roof Seal Selection Guidelines

About the Author

Sunil Pullarcot is currently a specialized inspection consultant with the Kuwait Oil Company and has more than 33 years of experience in the industry. He received a bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from the University of Kerala (College of Engineering, Trivandrum), and a master of technology in mechanical production from the Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT). His work has been featured in numerous journals, and he is also the author of a book on pressure vessel manufacturing.

Reviews

"This book provides a detailed know-how for the construction of storage tanks and their testing and maintenance. This book can serve as a practical handbook to derive all of the information in one place for engineering and safety management of storage tanks."
-Vladimir Strezov, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia

"Since I have been reading books on tanks, I have not seen or read details about tank construction as a whole. This is a masterpiece."
-Dr. Ehigiator Irughe, Raphael, GeoSystems and Environmental Engineering/University of Benin

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