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About the Editors Contributors Preface PART I: GENERAL OVERVIEW Chapter 1. Stress Environments and Their Impact on Crop Production (Shafiq-ur-Rehman, P. J. C. Harris, and M. Ashraf) Introduction Biotic and Abiotic Stresses Multiple and Variable Stresses and Tolerance Abiotic Stress Symptoms Major Abiotic Stresses Limiting Crop Yield Crop Production in Stressful Conditions Future Prospects Chapter 2. Breeding for Stress Resistance: General Principles (Mervyn O. Humphreys and Michael W. Humphreys) Introduction Breeding for Improved Stress Resistance The Genetics of Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms of Stress Resistance The Role of Genetic Engineering in Breeding: Implications and Limitations Conclusion Chapter 3. Use of Genetic Engineering and Molecular Biology Approaches for Crop Improvement for Stress Environments (Viswanathan Chinnusamy, Liming Xiong, and Jian-Kang Zhu) Introduction Osmolytes/Osmoprotectants Oxidative-Stress Tolerance Stress Proteins Cellular Membrane Stability Salt-Stress Tolerance: Ion Homeostasis Water Uptake and Transpiration Cell-Wall Elasticity Marker-Assisted Selection Conclusions and Future Perspectives Chapter 4. Genome Mapping and Its Implications for Improving Stress Resistance in Plants (Nguyen Thi Vinh and Andrew H. Paterson) The Impact of Drought, Salinity, and Acid Soil Conditions for World Agriculture Selection of Stress-Tolerant Crop Cultivars Application of DNA Markers to Improve Stress Tolerance Conclusion Chapter 5. Breeding for Salinity Tolerance (Rajinder S. Malhotra and Thomas Blake) Introduction The Problem of Salinization Mechanisms of Salinity Resistance Artificial Selection for Salinity Tolerance Sources of Genetic Variation for Salinity Resistance Classical Genetics and Marker-Assisted Selection Genetic Engineering for Salinity Resistance Conclusion Chapter 6. Breeding for Drought Resistance (D. Kumar) Introduction The Problem of Drought Methodology and Parameters of Drought Tolerance Breeding for Drought Tolerance Genetic Engineering for Resistance to Drought Limitations and Future Prospects Chapter 7. Molecular Genetics and Breeding for Flooding Tolerance (Apichart Vanavichit, Somvong Tragoonrung, and Theerayuth Toojinda) Introduction Tolerance to Flooding Genetics of Tolerance to Waterlogging and Flooding Genome Mapping and QTL Analysis Breeding Strategies for Submergence Tolerance Flooding Tolerance at the Molecular Level Chapter 8. Breeding for Metal Tolerance (Wilfried H. O. Ernst) Introduction Breeding for Aluminum Tolerance Heavy Metal Contamination and the Demand for Phytoremediation Metal Resistance in Plants and Decontamination Potential Breeding for Metal Tolerance Genetic Engineering at the Cellular Level Conclusion Chapter 9. Breeding Crops for Adaptation to Environments with Low Nutrient Availability (Zed Rengel) Introduction Nutrient Efficiency Adaptation to Environments Low in P, Fe, Zn, or Mn Mechanisms Governing Nitrogen Efficiency Breeding Genotypes for Greater Nutrient Efficiency Conclusion Chapter 10. Genetic Improvements of Tolerance to High Temperature (Catherine J. Howarth) Introduction High-Temperature-Induced Changes in Gene Expression Thermotolerance Assessment of High-Temperature Tolerance Future Prospects for Breeding for Tolerance to High-Temperature Stress Chapter 11. Breeding for Cold Tolerance (Pedro Revilla, Ana Butron, M. Elena Cartea, Rosa Ana Malvar, and Amando Ordas) Introduction Sources of Resistance Inheritance Breeding Programs Conclusion Appendix: Sources of Germplasm for Cold Tolerance PART II: BREEDING FOR ABIOTIC STRESS TOLERANCE IN INDIVIDUAL CROPS Chapter 12. Breeding for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Wheat (Wolfgang H. Pfeiffer, Richard M. Trethowan, Maarten van Ginkel, Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio, and Sanjaya Rajaram) Introduction Breeding Wheat for Tolerance to Moisture Stress Breeding Wheat for Tolerance to Heat Stress Breeding for Tolerance to Cold-Temperature Stress in Wheat Breeding for Tolerance to Waterlogging Stress in Wheat Breeding for Micronutrient Stresses in Wheat Chapter 13. Breeding for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Barley (Sakti Jana and Ron W. Wilen) Introduction Genetic Architecture of Barley Selection Criteria for Tolerance to Environmental Stresses Selection Techniques for Enhancing Tolerance to Environmental Stresses Sources of Variation for Barley Improvement Under Stress Conditions Breeding for Stress Tolerance Future Trends Chapter 14. Breeding for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice (Glen B. Gregorio and Gloria S. Cabuslay) Introduction Genetic Variability and Sources of Tolerance Screening Methods for Drought Tolerance Mechanisms of Drought Tolerance Genetics of Tolerance Prebreeding Research to Improve Donor Germplasm Achievements in Germplasm Improvement Toward the Development of Molecular Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) Chapter 15. Breeding for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Maize (Hans-Werner Koyro and Bernhard Huchzermeyer) Introduction Physiological Aspects Relevant to Stress-Tolerance Breeding Planting Regime and Site-Specific Effects on Plant Performance Genetic Resources The Classical Approach for Stress Tolerance Breeding Genetic Engineering Strategies Identifying Potential Stress-Tolerant Lines in Maize Chapter 16. Breeding for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Oilseed Crops (David A. Dierig) Introduction Genetic Architecture of Oilseed Crops Sources of Genetic Variation Breeding for Tolerance Selection Criteria and Techniques Achievements in Crop Improvement in the Past Few Decades Genetic Engineering for Crop Improvement Limitations and Future Prospects Chapter 17. Breeding for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Cotton (Daryl T. Bowman and Randy Wells) Genetic Architecture of Cotton Sources of Genetic Variation Crop Production Abiotic Stresses Breeding Techniques Genetic Engineering for Improvement of Abiotic Stress Tolerance Limitations and Future Prospects Chapter 18. Breeding for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tomato (Majid R. Foolad) Genetic Architecture of Tomato Sources of Genetic Variation Crop Production and Various Stresses Genetics of, and Breeding for Tolerance to Different Stresses Genetic Engineering for Crop Improvement Limitations and Future Prospects Index Reference Notes Included